Acrylamide mitigation strategies
- How does it work?
- What can it be used for?
- What can it not be used for?
- Related Facilities
- Further Information
|Key words||acrylamide, mitigation, neo-formed contaminant, asparaginase, asparagine, high pressure processing, potato, coffee, bread, bakery products, reducing sugar, acrylamide toolbox|
|Completed by||KU Leuven LFT|
How does it work?
|Primary objective||Acrylamide mitigation strategies are applied to reduce the content of the heat-induced contaminant and possible carcinogen acrylamide. In April 2002, it was shown that many heated foods contain significant levels of this contaminant.|
|Working principle|| Acrylamide in foods is predominantly formed as a result of the Maillard reaction between asparagine (an amino acid) and a reducing sugar (or reactive carbonyl compounds) at elevated temperature, although also other pathways not involving asparagines are known (acrolein or acrylic acid). It has been detected in French fries, bread, ...(i.e. food products that are cooked by methods that result in (partial) drying of the surface, forming a crust). The Maillard reaction is the predominant chemical process that is responsible for the colour, flavour and texture of cooked foods.
Acrylamide mitigation strategies intervene in the formation of this compound by affecting the Maillard reaction, at four different levels in the product life cycle:
The CIAA offers a “acrylamide toolbox” to assist individual manufacturers to assess and evaluate which of the intervention steps identified so far may be helpful to reduce acrylamide formation in their specific manufacturing processes and products.
It needs to be emphasised that there is in most cases no single solution to reduce acrylamide in foods, even in a given product category.
Furthermore, interventions in the Maillard reaction are likely to result in different or even unwanted product characteristics.
4. Final preparation
|Additional effects||Acrylamide mitigation strategies can affect the organoleptic quality of the food product or even increase the prevalence of other processing induced contaminants.|
|Important process parameters||temperature, time (therefore, kinetic data on formation and elimination are indispensible to evaluate the mitigation strategies) (11,12)|
|Important product parameters||water activity, pH, asparagine content, reducing sugars content|
What can it be used for?
|Products||French fries, bread, cookies, coffee, .... (low-moisture foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars)|
|Operations||Baking, roasting, frying|
|Solutions for short comings||Producing safe foods|
What can it NOT be used for?
|Products||Not relevant for high-moist food products, as acrylamide is not formed in these.|
|Operations||In processes occurring at low temperature, no acrylamide is formed, hence, mitigation strategies are not required.|
|Other limitations||Acrylamide mitigation strategies can affect the organoleptic quality of the food product or even increase the prevalence of other processing induced contaminants.|
|Risks or hazards||Acrylamide mitigation strategies can increase the prevalence of other processing induced contaminants (e.g. 3-monocholoropropandiol in bread when prolonging yeast fermentation) (13).|
|Maturity|| The effect of the application of these mitigation strategies on the dietary exposure to acrylamide has not been shown yet.(5,8)
Many strategies work well at labscale, but are not or less effective under industrial settings.
|Modularity /Implementation||Mitigation strategies can be implemented at different levels in the process chain. For some strategies, extra steps need to be foreseen (f.e. soaking, enzymatic treatment,....).|
|Consumer aspects|| Consumers will be open to strategies that prevent the formation of a potential carcinogen in popular foods such as bread and chips. Of course, they will require the quality of these products to be comparable to the conventional products.
The consumer needs to be better informed on the various possibilities for keeping the AA content of meals as low as possible, as an important share of the AA intake is due to prepared meals. For instance, frying French fries or toasting bread only to a golden yellow color is a relatively easily achievable mitigation strategy.
|Legal aspects|| The basic principles of EU legislation on contaminants in food are in Council Regulation 315/93/EEC of 8 February 1993 :
Member States should report to EFSA findings on acrylamide as specified in Commission Recommendation 2007/196/EC and Commission Recommendation 2007/331/EC.
Any intervention must also be evaluated for its regulatory impact (e.g. additives).
Asparaginases have received “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) status from the US FDA.
Facilities that might be interesting for you
temperature, time (therefore, kinetic data on formation and elimination are indispensible to evaluate the mitigation strategies) (11,12) water activity, pH, asparagine content, reducing sugars content not applicable 2.1.2 chemical stabilizing, structure forming, conversion ICT, biotechnology, other In-house knowledge, Web of Science search “acrylamide mitigation”, CIAA WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status