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Activity of actinidin as plant milk clotting enzyme controlled by high pressure processing

Identification

Key words actinidin, proteolytic activity, dairy, high pressure, milk, cheese, kiwi fruit, clotting, coagulation, high pressure processing
Latest version 2010/12/22
Completed by ttz

How does it work?

Primary objective controlled clotting of milk using plant protease instead of chymosin, which is produced by genetically modified microorganisms
Working principle Plant proteolytic enzymes such as actinidin, a sulfhydryl protease from kiwi fruit, can be used as milk clotting enzymes for dairy products. For this application, one requirement is the control of the proteolytic activity. Inactivation of the enzymes after milk clotting is achieved by high pressure (HP) technology. This technology allows the regulation of enzymatic activity at low temperatures.
Images
Additional effects inactivation of enzymes at low temperatures => reduces influences on texture and flavour

production of yellowish cheese (HP ≥ 800 MPa)

Important process parameters Scientific papers about the usage of actinidin as milk clotting agent are rare, but so far best results, concerning organoleptic characteristics and short coagulation time, were received with the following parameters:total solids (25 %), pH (6.49), actinidin activity (0.35 U/min)
Important product parameters Scientific papers about the usage of actinidin as milk clotting agent are rare, but so far best results, concerning organoleptic characteristics and short coagulation time, were received with the following parameters: pressure (600 MPa ), temperature (40°C), time (35 min)

However, process conditions with other parameters (35 °C, 650 MPa, 25 min) were also tested as suitable for dairy products. Best results are received with homogenized full-fat milk.

What can it be used for?

Products homogenized milk to prepare dairy products like fresh cheese and yoghurt
Operations structure forming and texture stabilizing
Solutions for short comings replacement of proteases produced by genetically modified organisms which raise ethical concerns, especially in the organic food sector

replacement of other chymosin alternatives which are difficult to regulate (e.g. due to high pressure stability) which results in the release of bitter peptides leading to off-flavour (e.g. papain and ficin).

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Any other than dairy products

non-homogenized milk

Operations
Other limitations High pressure (≥ 800 MPa) can cause colour change of the final product (yellowish).

High cost of HP processing for low added value product such as dairy products. Appliance of non-homogenized milk tends to fat and whey separation in the final product.

Risks or hazards No risks

Implementation

Maturity pilot scale
Modularity /Implementation high pressure unit needed
Consumer aspects Actinidin can be an allergen. Specifically, people allergic to latex, papayas or pineapples are likely to also be allergic to products using kiwifruit protease. Future experiments are planned to reduce actinidin activity by high pressure.
Legal aspects Food enzymes should be approved and used only if they fulfil the criteria laid down in REGULATION (EC) No 1332/2008.

EU: Novel Food approval for products treated with high pressure for most applications not required, no declaration or labelling required

Environmental aspects Inactivation of enzymes with HP technology is less energy consuming than heat inactivation by thermal pasteurization.

Further Information

Institutes NTU Athens, UAB
Companies Resato, Hiperbaric
References 1. Katsaros, G., Katapodis, P., Taoukis, P. (2009). Modeling the effect of temperature and high hydrostatic pressure on the proteolytic activity of kiwi fruit juice. Journal of Food Engineering 94, 40-45.

2. Katsaros, G., Katapodis, P., Taoukis, P. (2009). High hydrostatic pressure inactivation kinetics of the plant proteases ficin and papain. Journal of Food Engineering, 91, 1, 42-48.

3. Katsaros, G., Tavantzisa, G., Taoukis, P. (2010). Production of novel dairy products using actinidin and high pressure as enzyme activity regulator. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 11, 1, 47-51.

4. Pastorello, E., Conti, A., Pravettoni, V., Farioli, L., Rivolta, F., Ansaloni, R., Ispano, M., Incorvaia, C., Giuffrida, M., Ortolani, C. (1998). Identification of actinidin as the major allergen of kiwi fruit. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 101, 4, 531-537.

5. REGULATION (EC) No 1332/2008 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 December 2008 on food enzymes and amending Council Directive 83/417/EEC, Council Regulation (EC) No 1493/1999, Directive 2000/13/EC, Council Directive 2001/112/EC and Regulation (EC) No 258/97 Official Journal of the European Union L 354/1-9.

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Created by WikiSysop on 28 February 2012, at 13:00