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Casein micelles fortified with iron


Key words Fortification, iron, targeted delivery, casein, micelle, CO2 acidification, carbonation, milk, dairy
Latest version 2013/09/05
Completed by INRA - IATE

How does it work?

Primary objective iron fortification of milk, thanks to encapsulation within casein micelles
Working principle Caseins are one of the most important proteins of milk. Their native tri-dimensional form (III and IV structures) is a kind of more or less spheric "cage", with a space inside it. This space is usually occupied by calcium.

The technology consists in acidifying milk with CO2 (this operation is called carbonation), which causes a change in the III and IV structures of caseins. The micelle then “opens up”, allowing access to its inside. There, iron can be inserted alongside or instead of calcium. Then occurs the de-acidification (through degassing); the micelle “closes up”, locking the iron inside.

Additional effects When done with particular parameters, carbonation technology followed by degassing can lead to rennet clotting of Ultrahigh Temperature treated milk.

This technology may also have an effect on the product shelf-life. More generally, the reversible acidification of milk modifies temporarily the functionality of casein micelles. This can lead to several applications (to be studied).

Important process parameters Temperature, acidification speed, pH, holding time
Important product parameters

What can it be used for?

Products Milk
Operations Structure forming, fortification of common ingredients with molecules of interest
Solutions for short comings Developing milk with the same properties as maternal milk, ways of added value milk products, targeted delivery of molecules of interest via encapsulation inside the micelle : legislation and analysis

What can it NOT be used for?

Products This technology is available only on liquid or pumped products of low viscosity i.e. milk, soft drink containing casein micelles (micelles are mandatory for encapsulating molecules of interest)…
Operations This technology must be applied at low temperature to optimize CO2 solubility.
Other limitations Fat compounds could give some adverse reactions.
Risks or hazards Working with moderated pressure (5 to 30 bars) and CO2 toxicity


Maturity The technique has been demonstrated on lab-scale (see publications)
Modularity /Implementation This technology can be inserted in an existing production line using specific equipments as pump, CO2 injection system, pH and pressure monitoring
Consumer aspects Such iron fortification is likely to be more easily assimilated by the consumer and it does not need any additional ingredient.

CO2 technology is already used for sparkling soft drink. As regard to processed milk, sparkling milks can be found in the market with good consumer acceptance.

Legal aspects the technology is protected by an international patent (see references)
Environmental aspects Use of CO2 gas

Further Information

Institutes INRA - IATE, UMII - ATA
Companies Unilever
References Patent:

Raouche S., Dobenesque M., Bot A., Marchesseau S. 2009. Iron-containing composition and process to prepare such. WO2009047087 (A1); CE: A23C9/152B; A23C9/18; CIB: A23C9/13; A23J3/10; A23L1/304


Gevaudan S., Lagaude A., DeLaFuente B.T., Cuq J-L. 1996. Effect of treatment by gaseous carbon dioxide on the colloidal phase of skim milk. J. Dairy Science, 79(10) 1713-1721

Guillaume C., Marchesseau S., Lagaude A., Cuq J-L. 2002. Effect of salt addition on the micellar composition of milk subjected to pH reversible CO2 acidification. J. Dairy Science, 85(9), 2098-2105

Guillaume C., Jimenez L., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2004. An original pH reversible treatment of milk to improve rennet gel formation. International Dairy Journal, 14, 305-311

Guillaume C., Gastaldi E., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2004. Effect of pH on rennet clotting properties of CO2 acidified skim milk. International Dairy Journal, 14, 437-443

Guillaume C., Gastaldi E., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2004. Rennet-induced gelation of calcium and phosphate supplemented skim milk subjected to CO2 treatment. J. Dairy Science, 87, 3209-3216

Raouche S., Dobenesque M., Bot A., Lagaude A., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2007. Stability of casein micelle subjected to reversible CO2 acidification: impact of holding time and chilled storage. International Dairy Journal, 17, 873-880

Raouche S., Dobenesque M., Bot A., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2008. Stability of casein micelle subjected to C02 reversible acidification: impact of carbonation temperature and chilled storage time. International Dairy Journal, 18, 221-227

Raouche S., Naille S., Dobenesque M., Bot A., Jumas J-C., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2009. Iron fortification of skim milk: minerals, a 57Fe Mössbauer study. International Dairy Journal, 19, 53-63

Raouche S., Dobenesque M., Bot A., Cuq J-L., Marchesseau S. 2009. Casein micelles as vehicle for iron fortification of foods. European Food Research and Technology, 229, 929-935

Temperature, acidification speed, pH, holding time

2.1.3 chemical, biological stabilizing, structure forming biotechnology, nanotechnology Interviewing the researchers of UMR 1208 IATE (University Montpellier 2 Montpellier France): Sylvie Marchesseau, Sana Raouche WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status

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Created by Hte inra on 10 October 2011, at 16:08