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decision support system for packaging design

Identification

Key words Decision support system, food packaging system, mass transfer, composite food, edible coating
Latest version 2012/12/04
Completed by INRA - IATE

How does it work?

Primary objective This tool is a decision support system that simplifies the package design steps by predicting the required window of packaging permeability (mainly O2 and CO2 permeabilities) for maintaining the quality and safety of the packed food (fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables).

The decision support system also helps to design and dimension edible film and coating as moisture barrier for the development of new composite food products. This procedure minimizes the number of experiments and the economic and hazard safety consequences of empirical approaches (“pack and pray” or “trials and error” methods).

Working principle The decision support system (DSS) for packaging design is a numerical interface gathering different mathematical models of mass transfer programmed on Matlab® software. The first application is devoted to the design of active and passive MAP (modified atmosphere packaging) for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. It takes into account mass transfer (O2/CO2) through the packaging material (Fick’s laws and derivatives), the physiology of the product (respiration modelled by using the Michaelis-Menten equation) and the absorption/emitting of gas by active components such as O2 scavengers, intentionally added in the packaging (Charles et al. 2003, 2005, 2006; Guillard et al. 2012; Cagnon et al. 2012).

The second application is devoted to the design of edible films and coatings as moisture barrier for improving stability of composite food products and creating new products (Bourlieu et al. 2010; Roca et al. 2006, 2007, 2008a, b; Guillard et al. 2003a, b, 20004).

The DSS for designing packaging for fresh produce has been promoted to a web-interface: it is a free software (www.tailorpack.com) aiming at predicting evolution of O2 and CO2 internal concentrations in a food/packaging system in the case of respiring product and passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP); i.e. none active system is used and MAP is the result of interplay between gas diffusion through the packaging material and consumption/production of gases by the product. It also enables to predict in advance the required range of gas permeabilities (O2 and CO2) for a given product. Recent improvement permits to take into account biological uncertainty and its impact on the reliability of predictions (Destercke and Guillard 2011).

In the framework of the FP7 EcoBioCap project, this decision support system (DSS) is currently being updated to obtain a tool for multi-criteria design. Indeed, beyond gas permeabilities, the choice of a packaging material for fresh produce must take into account numerous other factors such as the cost, availability, potential contaminants of raw materials, process ability, waste management constraints, etc. (Destercke et al. 2011)
Needs, acceptances and preferences of stakeholders regarding packaging material for fresh produce are taken into account in the DSS. This DSS contains different components:

1) databases with all information regarding packaging material and respiration parameters for fresh fruits and vegetables,

2) virtual MAP modelling Matlab modules (Tailorpack models)

3) a Java module to manage stakeholder’s preference aggregation as regard packaging material. This module permits to detect conflicts between preferences and manage a negotiation phase between stakeholders to find compromises.

4) a Java module enabling flexible querying of the packaging database. A specific methodology is used to query databases when user’s preferences are bipolar (i.e., express both constraints and wishes about the desired result) and enables to solve the dilemma of multi-criteria demands with guaranteed result. Such DSS is indispensible to give an answer to complex query such as “I want optimal gas permeabilites in order to guarantee the product quality and I would like a packaging material made from renewable ressources, transparent if possible and with a cost for raw material less than 3 € / kg …”.


Active MAP (O2 scavenging properties of sachet intentionally added in the packaging or of packaging material itself) will be also added in the mathematical model for mass transfer, as well as equation for predicting food shelf life. A novel user-friendly interface will be then built up to complete the Tailorpack’s one (French/German collaboration “NextGenPack”).

The DSS in active MAP is also currently being upgraded in the framework of the French ANR Map’opt and in link with the development of the software of predictive microbiology Sym’Previus, by coupling the mass transfer models to models of predictive microbiology. Objective is to predict effect of gases O2 and CO2 on microorganisms’ growth. This tool will enable to dimension active MAP by permitting to identify in advance gas pemeabilites, internal gas composition, system geometries, etc. required for preventing pathogens’ growth (Pénicaud et al. 2011).

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Additional effects The decision support system for packaging design can help to design new experimental plans.
Important process parameters For passive and active MAP models:

- O2/CO2 permeabilities for packaging materials)

- physiology of the product (respiration modeled by using the Michaelis-Menten equation)

- absorption/emission of gas by active components such as O2 scavengers

- O2 and CO2 solubility and diffusivity

- Equations representing food shelf life evolution with time

- Models of predictive microbiology including effect of gases on microorganism’s growth

For multicriteria DSS:

- Data and databases containing data on fresh produce, and packaging properties (composition, gas permeabilities, mechanical properties, cost, etc.

Important product parameters for water transfer model in composite food:

- water activity

- temperature

- water diffusivity and water sorption isotherm

- food geometries

What can it be used for?

Products Respiring products (fruits and vegetables, cheese) and composite food product (e.g. sandwiches, sponge cake with a fresh filling, snacks and confectionary)

Non respiring product (for predictive microbiology)

Operations Packaging design, packaging development, edible film and coating design
Solutions for short comings Optimisation of packaging

Biodegradable packaging material

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Limited interest for dry products
Operations Storage (currently, no heat transfer, cooking and /or thermal operation or any processing unit other than storage taken into account)
Other limitations Lack of reliability of the prediction due to a too large uncertainty of input parameters
Risks or hazards

Implementation

Maturity The decision support system for packaging design has been implemented as a user-friendly webportal (http://www.tailorpack.com/).

This application is devoted to the design of packaging for respiring products (e.g. cheese, fruits and vegetable). The same user-friendly software has to be developed for the application concerning edible films and composite foods (under progress).

The database associated with the decision support system for packaging design (gathering the input parameters required to realize the simulations, e.g. gas permeabilities, water diffusivity, respiration rate, …) has been updated using the large panel of data available in the scientific literature

The next step for this technology is to be enriched in such a way that it will take into account the diffusion and antimicrobial effect of active compounds (such as volatile aroma compounds). The objective is to be able to design active packaging with antimicrobial activity

Modularity /Implementation The decision support system for packaging design is a tool for research and development (packaging manufacturers).
Consumer aspects Needs, acceptances and preferences of consumers regarding packaging material for fresh produce can be taken into account in the DSS thanks to the preference aggregation module presented above (see section working principle).
Legal aspects The decision support system for packaging design is registred at the french program protection agency : Agence de Protection des Programmes n° IDDN.FR.001.190007.000.R.P.2009.000.30605. (2009-05-05)

The databases are registered at the french program protection agency : Agence de Protection des Programmes n° IDDN.FR.001.130006.000.R.P.2011.000.31235.

Environmental aspects Not applicable

Further Information

Institutes INRA - GENIAL, CIRAD - Qualisud, ENSCM - IEM, INRA - SPO, CNRS - LCP, AgroSup Dijon - EMMA, ENSAIA, KU Leuven LFT, University of Parma, University of Milan, UNINA - DMA, Akdeniz University, University College Cork - FNS, EMPBRAPA, CSIC - IATA, Fraunhofer IVV, INRA - IATE
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References 1. Cagnon, T., Guillaume, C., Guillard, V. & Gontard, N. (forthcoming). Nano and micro-structuring of materials from a single agro-polymer for sustainable MAP preservation of fresh food. Packaging Technology and Science (PAPER PRESENTED AT IAPRI WORLD CONFERENCE 2012)

2. Guillard, V., Guillaume, C. & Destercke, S. (2012) Parameter uncertainties and error propagation in modified atmosphere packaging modelling. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 67: 154–166

3. Pénicaud, C., Peyron, S., Bohuon, P., Gontard, N. & Guillard, V. (2012) Influence of the experimental errors and their propagation on the accuracy of identified kinetics parameters: oxygen and temperature effects on ascorbic acid oxidation during storage. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51: 1131–1142

4. Pénicaud, C., Peyron, S., Gontard, N. & Guillard, V. (2012) Oxygen quantification methods and application to the determination of oxygen diffusion and solubility coefficients in food. Food Reviews International 28(2): 113-145

5. Destercke, S. & Guillard V. (2011) Interval analysis on non-linear monotonic systems as an efficient tool to optimise fresh food packaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 79: 116–124

6. Destercke, S., P. Buche, & Guillard V. (2011) A flexible bipolar querying approach with imprecise data and guaranteed results. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 169(- 1): 51 – 64

7. Pénicaud, C., Guillard, V., Peyron, S., Broyart, B. & Gontard, N. (2011) Modelling of coupling oxygen transfer and ascorbic acid oxidation kinetics in model food. Journal of Food Engineering 104: 96–104

8. Bourlieu, C., Guillard, V., Powell, H., Vallès-Pàmies, B., Guilbert, S. & Gontard, N. (2010) Effect of cooling rate on the structural and moisture barrier properties of high and low melting point fats. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 87:133–145

9. Charles, F., J. Sanchez, et al. (2003) Active modified atmosphere packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables: Modeling with tomatoes and oxygen absorber. Journal of Food Science 68(5): 1736-1742.

10. Charles, F., J. Sanchez, et al. (2005) Modeling of active modified atmosphere packaging of endives exposed to several postharvest temperatures. Journal of Food Science 70(8): E443-E449.
10. Charles, F., J. Sanchez, et al. (2005) Modeling of active modified atmosphere packaging of endives exposed to several postharvest temperatures. Journal of Food Science 70(8): E443-E449.

11. Charles F., Sanchez J., Gontard N. (2006) Absorption kinetic of oxygen and carbon dioxyde scavengers to design modified atmosphere packaging packaging. J. Food Engineering. 72(1) 1-7.

12. Guillard, V., Broyart, B., Bonazzi, C., Guilbert, S., and Gontard, N. (2003) Evolution of moisture distribution during storage in a composite food modelling and simulation. Journal of Food Science 68 (3): 958-966

13. Guillard, V., Broyart, B., Bonazzi, C., Guilbert, S., and Gontard, N. (2003) Preventing moisture transfer in a composite food using edible films: Experimental and mathematical study. Journal of Food Science 68 (7): 2267-2277

14. Guillard, V., Broyart, B., Guilbert, S., Bonazzi, C., and Gontard, N. (2004) Moisture diffusivity and transfer modelling in dry biscuit. Journal of Food Engineering 64 (1): 81-87

15. Roca, E., Guillard, V., Guilbert, S. and Gontard, N. (2006) Moisture migration in a cereal composite food at high water activity: effects of initial porosity and fat content. Journal of Cereal Science 43 (2): 144 – 151

16. Roca, E., Guillard, V., Broyart, B., Guilbert, S. et Gontard, N. (2007) Controlling moisture transport in a cereal porous product by changing structural or formulation parameters. Food Research International 40: 461-469

17. Roca, E., Guillard, V., Broyart, B., Guilbert, S. et Gontard, N. (2008) Effective moisture diffusivity modelling versus food structure and hygroscopicity. Food Chemistry 106: 1428 – 1437.

18. Roca E., Broyart B., Guillard V., Guilbert S., Gontard N. (2008) Predicting moisture transfer and shelf-life of multidomain food products. Journal of Food Engineering, 86 (1): 74-83.

19. Mathematical model OptiPa (an essential primer to develop models in the postharvest area): quality of fresh fruits and vegetables in controlled atmosphere packaging. Developped by the ∼u0040603/optipa Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

20. Mathematical model for the design of passive MAP for fresh fruits and vegetable. Developped by UCC Department of Process and Chemical Engineering, University College (www.packinmap.com)

For passive and active MAP models:

- O2/CO2 permeabilities for packaging materials)

- physiology of the product (respiration modeled by using the Michaelis-Menten equation)

- absorption/emission of gas by active components such as O2 scavengers

- O2 and CO2 solubility and diffusivity

- Equations representing food shelf life evolution with time

- Models of predictive microbiology including effect of gases on microorganism’s growth

For multicriteria DSS:

- Data and databases containing data on fresh produce, and packaging properties (composition, gas permeabilities, mechanical properties, cost, etc.warning.png"For passive and active MAP models:

- O2/CO2 permeabilities for packaging materials)

- physiology of the product (respiration modeled by using the Michaelis-Menten equation)

- absorption/emission of gas by active components such as O2 scavengers

- O2 and CO2 solubility and diffusivity

- Equations representing food shelf life evolution with time

- Models of predictive microbiology including effect of gases on microorganism’s growth

For multicriteria DSS:

- Data and databases containing data on fresh produce, and packaging properties (composition, gas permeabilities, mechanical properties, cost, etc." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. for water transfer model in composite food:

- water activity

- temperature

- water diffusivity and water sorption isotherm

- food geometrieswarning.png"for water transfer model in composite food:

- water activity

- temperature

- water diffusivity and water sorption isotherm

- food geometries" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. Software and Models 2.2.5 not applicable packaging ICT Interviews with the researchers of UMR 1208 IATE (INRA, Montpellier, France): Nathalie Gontard, Valérie Guillard, Patrice Buche WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status



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Created by Hte inra on 23 September 2011, at 09:34