- How does it work?
- What can it be used for?
- What can it not be used for?
- Related Facilities
- Further Information
|Key words||electrochemistry, electrochemical, voltammetry, analytical chemistry, taste, PCA, discrimination, classification, Identification, sensor array, biosensor, amperometry, multicomponent analysis|
|Completed by||KU Leuven LFT|
How does it work?
|Primary objective||Analytical tool|
|Working principle|| The principle behind the electrochemical tongue is based on chemical reactions taking place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution.
An electrochemical tongue consists of an array of voltammetric or amperometric sensors. These sensors are in contact with the electroactive analyte and after applying a varying or constant potential, respectively, to the working electrode the resulting current is measured. Using an array of sensors working at different potentials, and combining multivariate signals with pattern recognition routines, it is possible to resolve between different electroactive compounds. Although the specificity of each individual sensor is low, the combination of several selectivity classes entails a very large information potential.
|Additional effects||Not applicable, as this is a non-destructive technique|
|Important process parameters|
|Important product parameters||pH, ionic strength and electrochemical activity of solvent and analyte (and possible presence of electroactive impurities)|
What can it be used for?
|Solutions for short comings||
What can it NOT be used for?
|Products||Solid product, unless it can be completely dissolved|
|Risks or hazards||No information|
|Modularity /Implementation||Can be inserted in a process line.|
|Consumer aspects||No information – no problems expected|
|Legal aspects||No information – no problems expected|
|Environmental aspects||No information – no problems expected|
Facilities that might be interesting for you
|Institutes||DiCTFA, CSIC - IATA, Masaryk University Biochemistry, UNIMORE DipSAA|
|References|| 1. Dias, L.A. et al. (2008) An electronic tongue for honey classification. Microchimica Acta 163, 97-102.
2. Gil, L. et al. (2008) An electronic tongue for fish freshness analysis using a thick-film array of electrodes. Microchimica Acta 163, 121-129.
3. He, W. et al. (2009) Evaluation of Chinese tea by the electronic tongue: Correlation with sensory properties and classification according to geographical origin and grade level. Food Research International 42, 1462-1467.
4. Hong, M. et al. (2008) Application of neural networks to identify wine based on electronic tongue. 2008 Pacific-Asia Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Industrial Application.PACIIA 2008896-900.
5. Oliveri, P. et al. (2009) Development of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination of edible oils. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395, 1135-1143.
6. Paixao, T. & Bertotti, M. (2009) Fabrication of disposable voltammetric electronic tongues by using Prussian Blue films electrodeposited onto CD-R gold surfaces and recognition of milk adulteration. Sensors and Actuators: B Chemical266-273.
7. Pigani, L. et al. (2009) Classification of red wines by chemometric analysis of voltammetric signals from PEDOT-modified electrodes. Analytica Chimica Acta 643, 67-73.
8. Pioggia, G. et al. (2008) Characterization of a carbon nanotube polymer composite sensor for an impedimetric electronic tongue. Microchimica Acta 163, 57-62.
9. Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L. et al. (2008) Electronic tongue based on voltammetric electrodes modified with materials showing complementary electroactive properties. Applications. Microchimica Acta 163, 23-31.
10. Rudnitskaya, A. et al. (2009) Study of the influence of micro-oxygenation and oak chip maceration on wine composition using an electronic tongue and chemical analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta 642, 235-245.
11. Rudnitskaya, A. et al. (2009) Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue.
12. Scampicchio, M. et al. (2008) Amperometric electronic tongue for food analysis. Microchimica Acta 163, 11-21.
13. Wei, Z.B. et al. (2009) Technique potential for classification of honey by electronic tongue. Journal of Food Engineering 94, 260-266.
14. Zeravik, J. et al. (2009) State of the Art in the Field of Electronic and Bioelectronic Tongues - Towards the Analysis of Wines. Electroanalysis 21, 2509-2520.
15. Zhenbo, W. et al. (2009) Technique potential for classification of honey by electronic tongue. Journal of Food Engineering260-266.
pH, ionic strength and electrochemical activity of solvent and analyte (and possible presence of electroactive impurities) Sensors and Indicators 2.1.2 physical, chemical not applicable ICT, nanotechnology