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Encapsulation of lycopene to increase its bioavailability


Key words encapsulation, lycopene, spray drying, freeze drying
Latest version 2010/12/20
Completed by FRIP

How does it work?

Primary objective Stabilization, protection during digestion
Working principle Example: lycopene protection during digestion.

Lycopene protection is done mostly by chemical encapsulation of prepared mixture of lycopene or tomato extract with some protection substances. Mostly used protection substances are gelatine, gelatine with sucrose, starch, maltodextrin, poly(γ-glutamic acid) and cyclodextrins including beta-cyclodextrin. The most used processes are spray drying and freeze drying [1,2,3,4,5,6,7].

Additional effects better storage stability, stability during further processing
Important process parameters Level of temperature during processing, shear rate limit causing damage of the protective substance structure.
Important product parameters Concentration of protective substance, method of encapsulation, stability of cover.

What can it be used for?

Products Bioactive components from vegetables, powders, liquid nutraceuticals
Operations Drying, pasteurisation, sterilisation
Solutions for short comings This technology answers to the potential need coming from industry like: “methods of stabilizing or protection of lycopene during digestion to increase its bioavailability”

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Products without lycopene or products that contain acids and enzymes that might destroy the capsule
Operations The operations that destroy the layer of protecting substance (enzymes, acids): e.g. enzymatic treatment of encapsulated lycopene powder when added as ingredient into formulation of some functional food.
Other limitations The encapsulating layer has to be digestible in the human digestion system. Otherwise it will leave the body unused. This problem can be solved by verification experiment that mimics digestion.
Risks or hazards Accumulation of lycopene in the body.


Maturity Spray drying encapsulation is the mature process applied in industrial conditions.
Modularity /Implementation Spray drying units are already built-in process.
Consumer aspects No problems expected in food supplements, it is not clear how it would be accepted in normal food formulations
Legal aspects None known up to now.
Environmental aspects Not known.

Further Information

Institutes CSIC - Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Agriculture and Agri-food Canada
Companies Niro Atomiser, CENTIV
References [1] Nunes, I.L., Mercadante, A.Z., Encapsulation of lycopene using spray-drying and molecular inclusion processes (2007) BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY, 50 (5), pp. 893-900

[2] Blanch, G.P., Ruiz del Castillo, M.L., del Mar Caja, M., Pérez-Méndez, M., Sánchez-Cortés, Stabilization of all-trans-lycopene from tomato by encapsulation using cyclodextrins (2007) FOOD CHEMISTRY, 105 (4), pp.1335-1341

[3] Chiu, Y.T., Chiu, C.P., Chien, J.T., Ho, G.H., Yang, J., Chen, B.H. Encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste with gelatin and poly(γ-glutamic acid) as carrier (2007) JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 55 (13), pp. 5123-5130

[4] Quek, S.Y., Chok, N.K., Swedlund, P., The physicochemical properties of spray-dried watermelon powders, (2007) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING: PROCESS INTENSIFICATION, 46 (5), pp. 386-392

[5] Champagne, C.P., Fustier, P., Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods, (2007) CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (2), pp. 184-190

[6] Shu, B., Yu, W., Zhao, Y., Liu, X., Study on microencapsulation of lycopene by spray-drying (2006) JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, 76 (4), pp. 664-669.

[7] Robert, P., Carlsson, R.M., Romero, N., Masson, L. Stability of Spray-Dried Encapsulated Carotenoid Pigments from Rosa Mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) Oleoresin, (2003) JAOCS, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY, 80 (11), pp. 1115-1120.

Level of temperature during processing, shear rate limit causing damage of the protective substance structure. Concentration of protective substance, method of encapsulation, stability of cover. Dryers 2.1.2 chemical, biological stabilizing biotechnology Scopus keywords tested in title, abstract and keywords: encapsulation AND lycopene encapsulation AND sulforaphane sulforaphane AND protection - gives misleading reply to sulforaphane effects on humans and cells sulforaphane AND processing – gives papers between others dealing with influence of heat treatment of broccoli on sulforaphane content of treated products, no protection method found (only high pressure is gentle to this substance) WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status

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Created by IeselVdP on 22 September 2011, at 19:42