Encapsulation of lycopene to increase its bioavailability
- How does it work?
- What can it be used for?
- What can it not be used for?
- Related Facilities
- Further Information
|Key words||encapsulation, lycopene, spray drying, freeze drying|
How does it work?
|Primary objective||Stabilization, protection during digestion|
|Working principle|| Example: lycopene protection during digestion.
Lycopene protection is done mostly by chemical encapsulation of prepared mixture of lycopene or tomato extract with some protection substances. Mostly used protection substances are gelatine, gelatine with sucrose, starch, maltodextrin, poly(γ-glutamic acid) and cyclodextrins including beta-cyclodextrin.
The most used processes are spray drying and freeze drying [1,2,3,4,5,6,7].
|Additional effects||better storage stability, stability during further processing|
|Important process parameters||Level of temperature during processing, shear rate limit causing damage of the protective substance structure.|
|Important product parameters||Concentration of protective substance, method of encapsulation, stability of cover.|
What can it be used for?
|Products||Bioactive components from vegetables, powders, liquid nutraceuticals|
|Operations||Drying, pasteurisation, sterilisation|
|Solutions for short comings||This technology answers to the potential need coming from industry like: “methods of stabilizing or protection of lycopene during digestion to increase its bioavailability”|
What can it NOT be used for?
|Products||Products without lycopene or products that contain acids and enzymes that might destroy the capsule|
|Operations||The operations that destroy the layer of protecting substance (enzymes, acids): e.g. enzymatic treatment of encapsulated lycopene powder when added as ingredient into formulation of some functional food.|
|Other limitations||The encapsulating layer has to be digestible in the human digestion system. Otherwise it will leave the body unused. This problem can be solved by verification experiment that mimics digestion.|
|Risks or hazards||Accumulation of lycopene in the body.|
|Maturity||Spray drying encapsulation is the mature process applied in industrial conditions.|
|Modularity /Implementation||Spray drying units are already built-in process.|
|Consumer aspects||No problems expected in food supplements, it is not clear how it would be accepted in normal food formulations|
|Legal aspects||None known up to now.|
|Environmental aspects||Not known.|
Facilities that might be interesting for you
|Institutes||CSIC - Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Agriculture and Agri-food Canada|
|Companies||Niro Atomiser, CENTIV|
|References||  Nunes, I.L., Mercadante, A.Z., Encapsulation of lycopene using spray-drying and molecular inclusion processes (2007) BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY, 50 (5), pp. 893-900
 Blanch, G.P., Ruiz del Castillo, M.L., del Mar Caja, M., Pérez-Méndez, M., Sánchez-Cortés, Stabilization of all-trans-lycopene from tomato by encapsulation using cyclodextrins (2007) FOOD CHEMISTRY, 105 (4), pp.1335-1341
 Chiu, Y.T., Chiu, C.P., Chien, J.T., Ho, G.H., Yang, J., Chen, B.H. Encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste with gelatin and poly(γ-glutamic acid) as carrier (2007) JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 55 (13), pp. 5123-5130
 Quek, S.Y., Chok, N.K., Swedlund, P., The physicochemical properties of spray-dried watermelon powders, (2007) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING: PROCESS INTENSIFICATION, 46 (5), pp. 386-392
 Champagne, C.P., Fustier, P., Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods, (2007) CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (2), pp. 184-190
 Shu, B., Yu, W., Zhao, Y., Liu, X., Study on microencapsulation of lycopene by spray-drying (2006) JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, 76 (4), pp. 664-669.
 Robert, P., Carlsson, R.M., Romero, N., Masson, L. Stability of Spray-Dried Encapsulated Carotenoid Pigments from Rosa Mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) Oleoresin, (2003) JAOCS, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY, 80 (11), pp. 1115-1120.
Level of temperature during processing, shear rate limit causing damage of the protective substance structure. Concentration of protective substance, method of encapsulation, stability of cover. Dryers 2.1.2 chemical, biological stabilizing biotechnology Scopus keywords tested in title, abstract and keywords: encapsulation AND lycopene encapsulation AND sulforaphane sulforaphane AND protection - gives misleading reply to sulforaphane effects on humans and cells sulforaphane AND processing – gives papers between others dealing with influence of heat treatment of broccoli on sulforaphane content of treated products, no protection method found (only high pressure is gentle to this substance) WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status