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Encapsulation of sulforaphane to increase its stability during heat processing of functional foods


Key words encapsulation, sulforaphane
Latest version 2012/03/06
Completed by FRIP

How does it work?

Primary objective Increase efficacy and availability of the health-related compound sulforaphane (SF); stabilization during subsequent heat pasteurization of SF-enriched products e.g. ketchups, sauces.
Working principle Sulforaphane is a heat unstable compound of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetable based products like fresh juices and homogenates [1].

The main principle of protection of sulforaphane is encapsulating it in albumin microspheres [2]. A method of encapsulation based on dissolution of sulforaphane and bovine serum albumin and subsequent spray drying in mini spray dryer (inlet/outlet temperature – 110/80 °C) has been described. Detailed review of different microencapsulation techniques of different nutrients is given in [3].

Additional effects Better efficiency for the organism (sulforaphane is released in the specific part of the body, where albumin is destroyed by digestion), prolonged time of sulforaphane release.

Improved sulforaphane stability during further processing.

Important process parameters Time and temperature during drying (processing) influence the characteristics of the microsphere.
Important product parameters concentration of substances forming microsphere (bovine serum albumin)

What can it be used for?

Products Bioactive components from vegetables (high levels detected in broccoli and broccoli sprouts).They can enrich traditional foods like ketchup and sauces to form so-called functional foods.
Operations Encapsulation by spray drying.
Solutions for short comings How can we save the exogenous sulforaphane in products and increase its bioavailability?

What can it NOT be used for?

Products None.
Operations High sterilization temperature of low acid products could destroy the content of the sulforaphane in the product to a large extent so that the positive effect of sulforaphane is lost.
Other limitations The encapsulating layer (bovine albumin as an example) has to be digestible in the human digestion system. Otherwise it will leave the body unused. This problem can be solved by verification experiments that mimic digestion In vitro digestion procedures to estimate the (micro)nutrient bio-availability of foods.
Risks or hazards Not specified.


Maturity The pure form of sulforaphane has not been tested in humans. Broccoli sprouts, which are a rich source of sulforaphane, have been tested in clinical trials. Outcomes from these studies show that they are well tolerated with almost no side effects [4].

The vitamins encapsulation is being tested to preserve their native properties over time. Spray drying encapsulation is a mature process applied in industrial conditions.

Modularity /Implementation Spray drying units are already built-in process.
Consumer aspects No problems expected in food supplements, it is not clear how it would be accepted in normal food formulations.
Legal aspects None known up to now. Broccoli juice and homogenates are natural products consumed fresh for many years. Only encapsulated sulforaphane can be the objective of Novel food legislation testing.
Environmental aspects Not known.

Further Information

Institutes INSERM, School of Pharmacy, Fu Jen University, Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Universidad de Chile
Companies Niro Atomiser, Büchi, GEA Niro, Glatt
References [1] Xiao, Q., Liang, H., & Yuan, Q. (2007). Effect of temperature, pH and light on the stability of sulforaphane solution. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal, 42(3), 193-196.

[2] Do, D. P., Pai, S. B., Rizvi, S. A. A., & D'Souza, M. J. (2010). Development of sulforaphane-encapsulated microspheres for cancer epigenetic therapy. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 386(1-2), 114-121.

[3] Champagne, C.P., Fustier, P., Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods, (2007) CURRENT OPINION INBIOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (2), pp. 184-190

[4] Shapiro, T.A., Fahey, J.W., Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., Holtzclaw, W.D., Stephenson, K.K., Wade, K.L., Ye, L., Talalay, P., Safety, tolerance, and metabolism of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: A clinical phase I study, (2006) Nutrition and Cancer, 55 (1), pp. 53-62

Time and temperature during drying (processing) influence the characteristics of the microsphere. concentration of substances forming microsphere (bovine serum albumin) Encapsulators 2.1.2 chemical stabilizing biotechnology Scopus keywords tested in title, abstract and keywords: sulforaphane (SF) AND protection - gives misleading reply to sulforaphane effects on humans and cells and its’ characteristics

sulforaphane AND processing – gives papers between others dealing with influence of heat treatment of broccoli on sulforaphane content of treated products, no protection method found (only high pressure is gentle to this substance)

sulforaphane AND food – gives 179 replies where papers give attention of SF content in various vegetable/plant and its’ potential or impact on human health (especially with respect to cancer treatment)sulforaphane-encapsulated gave one reply, reference see below (microspheres)

Sulforaphane AND bioavailability gave 46 replies, most of them were devoted to relation of consumption broccoli and cruciferous vegetables or components and human health (cancer prevention, impact on tumor cells etc.), only some were selected with aim of the topic how to stabilize the sulforaphane during further processing. WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status

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Created by Houska on 6 March 2012, at 15:12