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Enzymatic liquefaction of fish meat


Key words fish meat, liquefaction, enzyme, hydrolyzed fish meat
Latest version 2012/05/25
Completed by FRIP

How does it work?

Primary objective To facilitate the consumption of fish meat.
Working principle The purpose of fish liquefaction is to separate the bones from the fish meat. There are different methods, like storage of fish meat in vinegar followed by washing in milk, enzymatic liquefaction, or hydrolysis of fish meat and bones. These processes are used to obtain different kinds of products. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) have good and well documented functional properties. Peptides obtained from various fish protein hydrolysates have also shown bioactive and antioxidative activities [1].Canning of tuna involves large amounts of solid waste (up to 70%) with high protein content. Through hydrolysis of the waste several ingredients for food production can be prepared.

Also, commercial proteases can be used to produce Fresh Minced Meat Hydrolysate (FMMH) and Hot Water Dip Hydrolysate (HWDH). HWDH has a high in vitro protein digestibility and good foam stability properties. The hydrolysates contain amounts of essential amino acids enough for the recommendations by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World health Organization (2007) for humans. Storage and preparation of the fish raw material influence the yield, functionality, bioactivity (CGRP and gastrin/CCK related molecules) and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates. A series of hydrolysis trials have been carried out using backbones from cod that were initially fresh or frozen and further hydrolyzed for different times [1]. Use of fresh raw material significantly increased the yield of dry FPH, influenced the color of the product and improved the emulsification properties. Long hydrolysis time gave high FPH yield, increased degree of hydrolysis and decreased water holding capacity of the powders. Lactic acid bacteria-induced fermentation is used to develop novel fish food products with desired meat properties [2]. Selected lactic acid bacteria strains, isolated from lightly preserved fish products, can be inoculated into minced frozen fish fillets.

Additional effects Higher protein concentration of hydrolyzed products compared to initial source.
Important process parameters temperature
Important product parameters concentration of enzyme, composition of fish meat

What can it be used for?

Products solid or semisolid foods, bones
Operations hydrolysis, liquefaction
Solutions for short comings • Improving the consumer convenience of fish meat

• Valorisation of waste products from processing of fish meat, bones, skins etc.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products • Products that cannot be processed by enzymes

• Raw materials with low water activity

Other limitations Too high temperatures during enzymatic reaction can limit the reaction rate and enzyme activity.
Risks or hazards Surplus enzyme has to be inactivated after processing to protect consumers from the product. Active enzymes after processing can influence the consumer digestion of hydrolyzed products.


Maturity Mature for waste processing and preparation of food additives in the fish industry.
Modularity /Implementation The enzymatic hydrolysis can be applied on batches of fish meat and fish meat wastes.
Consumer aspects Consumers can benefit from composition of hydrolyzed fish products. These products can be used as beneficial food additives.
Legal aspects Enzymatic hydrolyse is not limited by food law or regulations other than food safety regulation.
Environmental aspects Enzymatic reactions can help to process fish meat wastes effectively, which substantially decrease the energy and related costs for waste management. Waste volume is reduced and final hydrolyzed products can be used as feeding source for animals or for human consumption.

Further Information

Institutes CNRS - Marine Biology Station of Concarneau, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, ABB
Companies SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture
References [1] Šližyte, R., Mozuraityte, R., Martínez-Alvarez, O., Falch, E., Fouchereau-Peron, M., Rustad, T., Functional, bioactive and antioxidative properties of hydrolysates obtained from cod (Gadus morhua) backbones, (2009) Process Biochemistry, 44 (6), pp. 668-677.

[2] Glatman, L., Drabkin, V., Gelman, A., Using lactic acid bacteria for developing novel fish food products, (2000) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80 (3), pp. 375-380.

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Created by Milan123 on 16 April 2012, at 14:34