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Fat replacers for meat products


Key words Fat replacer, Meat product
Latest version 2012/03/06
Completed by FRIP

How does it work?

Primary objective The primary objective of fat replacement is lowering the fat content and the energy value of meat products. Fat replacers should have the proper properties to mimic the fat globules and retain similar sensorial properties of the modified product compared to control with full fat content. Innovation apparent in recent research works is the aim to replace fat pieces in meat product where fat pieces are typical (sausage fat).
Working principle The basic principle of the technology of the fat replacer in meat product is using some fat or oil, thicken it with stabiliser to be stable in meat product heat treatment. Fat replacer has to survive the final heat processing in meat product. Some fat replacers are made from not fat particles such as extracted poppy seed paste etc.

As fat replacers, many ingredients have been tested and applied in industry. Below, there is a list of selected relevant papers describing details of applications, substances used and meat products, in which the specific substance was successfully used. Fat replacers can be applied in meat batters, sausages, frankfurters, meat burgers, minced meat preparations, meat balls, various national specialities (sucuk, kofte – Turkish meatballs), meat patties, chevron loaves, ham pâté, beef burger, salami chicken breakfast sausage, summer sausage etc.

Real fat pieces replacer have been prepared from vegetable or fish oils combinations emulsified in water and stabilized with sodium caseinate, soy protein and tranglutaminase [1]. Poppy seed paste [2] is in this respect interesting to be used as a fat replacer. Most of other fat replacers have been applied as ingredient emulsified homogeneously into the meat product (no effort to mimic the fat pieces). There is a long list of ingredients: precipitated skim milk [3], walnut [4] etc. Overview of these combinations is given in [5]. Opinion of American dietetic association on fat replacers is given in [24].

List of fat replacers mentioned in selected literature [6-34]. Water deserves special attention as a fat replacer [16]. We can mention the most frequent fat replacers: sodium caseinate, carrageenan, tapioca starch, whey protein concentrate, silkworm powder and vegetable worm, oat's soluble fibre (beta-glucan), combination of isolated soy protein with olive oil, carrageenan, and maltodextrin, modified potato starch, inulin, egg white protein, yams (Dioscorea alata), sodium alginate, citrus
fibre, soy protein concentrate; whey powder, globulin and plasma; barley beta-glucan, corn flour, short chain fructooligosaccharide, carrageen gum, modified cassava starch, microparticulated whey protein, and oat bran, lupin-kernel fibre, fish proteins, carrageenan, combination of high-amylose cornstarch, maltodextrins, and canola oil, oligofructose, granulated low-calcium (0.2%) skim milk co-precipitate, rice granules, potato flour/beet fiber, rice flour, pectin, commercial mixture of carrageenan and locust bean gum, aqueous suspensions of curdlan.

Additional effects Using fat replacers means the risk of changes in quality parameters (flavor, odor, taste, the total cholesterol content and mainly texture). Therefore, the amount of added fat replacer has to be carefully tested and optimum combination of original fat and fat replacer predicted. Replacers have frequently better emulsifying and water bonding properties than replaced fat.
Important process parameters mixing time, cooking temperature and time of meat product
Important product parameters fat replacer concentration, ingredients combination, final product texture (shape, hardness, juiciness), flavor, taste. Changes of fat replacers during all processing steps should be monitored.

What can it be used for?

Products Meat products
Operations Meat product formulation
Solutions for short comings Fat content reduction in meat products.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Fat replacers mentioned here can be used only for meat products not for bakery products (this search was limited to bakery products but some fat replacers mentioned here can be used also for bakery products).
Operations Vigorous mixing can destroy the gentle emulsion of fat replacer and water and fat in meat homogenate. During subsequent heat treatment of meat product phase separation can occur.
Other limitations In some countries, limits of added fat replacers were defined. Overcoming of limits can be regarded as meat product adulteration. In this respect, the reference [35] is included into our list of references, providing overview of existing analytical methods for adulteration prediction. The design of fat replacer amount is therefore time consuming step and can cost more than using original fat pieces in meat product.
Risks or hazards Misuse of fat replacers for adulteration of meat products. It is much more important when meat proteins are exchanged by proteins of the plant origin (this is actual also here; see the list of fat replacers where the soya protein isolate or concentrate can be found).


Maturity This technology is currently applied in the meat industry.
Modularity /Implementation Fat replacers are added mostly during cutting of meat and mixing with other ingredients.
Consumer aspects This is sensitive, country by country specific topic. The consumer should be informed about composition. Low calorie meat product is attractive.
Legal aspects Some products are protected by regulation (ham) and some product not. There is not common EU regulation for meat product. Using fat replacer changes meat product into different product having impact on all aspects of the production (HACCP steps, safety etc.). This difference should be officially reflected and official documents changed for totally new product.
Environmental aspects Not applicable.

Further Information

Institutes ICTAN, Afyon Kocatepe University, University of Hohenheim, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Ege University, University College Cork - FNS, Teagasc, Nestlé Research Centre, Max Rubner Institute, University of Parma, Queen's University Belfast
References [1] Delgado-Pando, G., Cofrades, S., Ruiz-Capillas, C., Solas, M.T., Triki, M., Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Low-fat frankfurters formulated with a healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient: Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation, (2011) Meat Science, 89 (1), pp. 65-71.

[2] Gök, V., Akkaya, L., Obuz, E., Bulut, S., Effect of ground poppy seed as a fat replacer on meat burgers, (2011) Meat Science, . Article in Press.

[3] Eswarapragada, N.M., Reddy, P.M., Prabhakar, K., Quality of low fat pork sausage containing milk-co-precipitate, (2010) Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47 (5), pp. 571-573.

[4] Ercoskun, H., Demirci-Ercoskun, T.,Walnut as fat replacer and functional component in sucuk, (2010) Journal of Food Quality, 33 (5), pp. 646-659.

[5] Weiss, J., Gibis, M., Schuh, V., Salminen, H.,Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products, (2010) Meat Science, 86 (1), pp. 196-213. review

[6] Kook, S.H., Park, S.Y., Chin, K.B., Effect of various combinations of sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids on volatile compounds of low-fat sausages to have similar characteristics to those of regular-fat sausages, (2009) Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 29 (4), pp. 487-493.

[7] Modi, V.K., Yashoda, K.P., Mahendrakar, N.S., Low-fat mutton kofta prepared by using carrageenan as fat replacer: quality changes in cooked product during storage, (2009) Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46 (4), pp. 316-319.

[8] Mohammad Nisar, N.P., Chatli, M.K., Sharma, D.K., Efficacy of tapioca starch as a fat replacer in low-fat buffalo meat patties, (2009) Buffalo Bulletin, 28 (1), pp. 18-24.

[9] Lee, H.C., Chin, K.B., Physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of low-fat/ reduced-salt sausages as affected by salt levels and different type and level of milk proteins (2009) Food Science and Biotechnology, 18 (1), pp. 36-42.

[10] Jang, A., Jin, S.-K., Jo, C., Lee, M., Kim, I.-S., Quality evaluation of low-fat pork loaf containing silkworm powder and vegetable worm (Paecilomyces japonica) during cold storage, (2008) Food Science and Biotechnology, 17 (4), pp. 799-804.

[11] Piñero, M.P., Parra, K., Huerta-Leidenz, N., Arenas de Moreno, L., Ferrer, M., Araujo, S., Barboza, Y., Effect of oat's soluble fibre (β-glucan) as a fat replacer on physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of low-fat beef patties, (2008) Meat Science, 80 (3), pp. 675-680.

[12] Moon, S.-S., Jin, S.-K., Hah, K.-H., Kim, I.-S., Effects of replacing backfat with fat replacers and olive oil on the quality characteristics and lipid oxidation of low-fat sausage during storage, (2008) Food Science and Biotechnology, 17 (2), pp. 396-401.

[13] Liu, H., Xiong, Y.L., Jiang, L., Kong, B., Fat reduction in emulsion sausage using an enzyme-modified potato starch, (2008) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88 (9), pp. 1632-1637.

[14] Nowak, B., Von Mueffling, T., Grotheer, J., Klein, G., Watkinson, B.-M. Energy content, sensory properties, and microbiological shelf life of German bologna-type sausages produced with citrate or phosphate and with inulin as fat replacer (2007) Journal of Food Science, 72 (9), pp. S629-S638.

[15] Yoo, S.S., Kook, S.H., Park, S.Y., Shim, J.H., Chin, K.B., Physicochemical characteristics, textural properties and volatile compounds in comminuted sausages as affected by various fat levels and fat replacers, (2007) International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42 (9), pp. 1114-1122.

[16] Kumar, M., Sharma, B.D., Quality characteristics of low-fat ground pork patties processed with varying levels of water, (2007) Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44 (4), pp. 408-412.

[17] Tan, F.-J., Liao, F.-Y., Jhan, Y.-J., Liu, D.-C., Effect of replacing pork backfat with yams (Dioscorea alata) on quality characteristics of Chinese sausage, (2007) Journal of Food
[18] Kumar, M., Sharma, B.D., Kumar, R.R., Evaluation of sodium alignate as a fat replacer on processing and shelf-life of low-fat ground pork patties, (2007) Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 20 (4), pp. 588-597.

[19] Cengiz, E., Gokoglu, N., Effects of fat reduction and fat replacer addition on some quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages, (2007) International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42 (3), pp. 366-372.

[20] Kumar, N., Sahoo, J., Studies on use of sodium alginate as fat replacer in development of low-fat chevon loaves, (2006) Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43 (4), pp. 410-412.

[21] Serdaroǧlu, M., Improving low fat meatball characteristics by adding whey powder (2006) Meat Science, 72 (1), pp. 155-163.

[22] Cengiz, E., Gokoglu, N., Changes in energy and cholesterol contents of frankfurter-type sausages with fat reduction and fat replacer addition, (2005) Food Chemistry, 91 (3), pp. 443-447.

[23] Viana, F.R., Silva, V.D.M., Delvivo, F.M., Bizzotto, C.S., Silvestre, M.P.C., Quality of ham pâté containing bovine globin and plasma as fat replacers, (2005) Meat Science, 70 (1), pp. 153-160.

[24] Anonym, Position of the American Dietetic Association: Fat replacers (2005) Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105 (2), pp. 266-275. Review

[25] Morin, L.A., Temelli, F., McMullen, L., Interactions between meat proteins and barley (Hordeum spp.) β-glucan within a reduced-fat breakfast sausage systém, (2004) Meat Science, 68 (3), pp. 419-430.

[26] Serdaroǧlu, M., Deǧirmenciog;lu, O., Effects of fat level (5%, 10%, 20%) and corn flour (0%, 2%, 4%) on some properties of Turkish type meatballs (koefte), (2004) Meat Science, 68 (2), pp. 291-296.

[27] Cáceres, E., García, M.L., Toro, J., Selgas, M.D.,The effect of fructooligosaccharides on the sensory characteristics of cooked sausages, (2004) Meat Science, 68 (1), pp. 87-96.

[28] Sampaio, G.R., Castellucci, C.M.N., Pinto Silva, M.E.M., Torres, E.A.F.S., Effect of fat replacers on the nutritive value and acceptability of beef frankfurters, (2004) Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 17 (3-4), pp. 469-474.

[29] Archer, B.J., Johnson, S.K., Devereux, H.M., Baxter, A.L.,Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptalibility, post-metal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men, (2004) British Journal of Nutrition, 91 (4), pp. 591-599.

[30] Viana, F.R., Bizzotto, C.S., Dias, D.R., Oliveira, A.L., Silvestre, M.P.C.,Bovine Blood Constituents as Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté,(2004) Food Technology and Biotechnology, 42 (1), pp. 5-10.

[31] Kumar, M., Sharma, B.D.,The storage stability and textural, physico-chemical and sensory quality of low-fat ground pork patties with Carrageenan as fat replacer,(2004) International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39 (1), pp. 31-42.

[32] Hoffman, L.C., Mellett, F.D., Quality characteristics of low fat ostrich meat patties formulated with either pork lard or modified corn starch, soya isolate and water, (2003) Meat Science, 65 (2), pp. 869-875.

[33] Garzon, G.A., McKeith, F.K., Gooding, J.P., Felker, F.C., Palmquist, D.E., Brewer, M.S., Characteristics of low-fat beef patties formulated with carbohydrate-lipid composites, (2003) Journal of Food Science, 68 (6), pp. 2050-2056.

[34] Devereux, H.M., Jones, G.P., McCormack, L., Hunter, W.C., Consumer acceptability of low fat foods containing inulin and oligofructose, (2003) Journal of Food Science, 68 (5), pp. 1850-1854.

[35] Belloque, J., García, M.C., Torre, M., Marina, M.L., Analysis of soyabean proteins in meat products: A review, (2002) Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 42 (5), pp. 507-532.

mixing time, cooking temperature and time of meat product fat replacer concentration, ingredients combination, final product texture (shape, hardness, juiciness), flavor, taste. Changes of fat replacers during all processing steps should be monitored. not applicable 2.2.2 chemical, biological stabilizing, structure forming not applicable Scopus database, first used keywords “Fat replacer”, refined by “meat products”, 78 hits sorted manually to gain 54 references, 10 eliminated after abstract reading due to missing details about fat replacer. WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status

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Created by Houska on 6 March 2012, at 12:12