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High pressure assisted meat tenderisation by papain and ficin


Key words meat tenderisation, papain, high pressure
Latest version 2012/05/23
Completed by FRIP

How does it work?

Primary objective Injection of papain into meat to enhance structure and increase tenderness after high pressure processing. This technique can also be used without high pressure treatment.
Working principle Papain and ficin are general non-specific plant thiol proteases applied in food processing [1]. These enzymes have high thermal and pressure stability requiring intense process conditions for adequate inactivation. Injection of papain and pressurization to 100 MPa leads to significant increase of meat tenderness [2]. The amount of enzymes relative to the mass of the meat and used pressure are the important parameters that can affect the meat tenderness [3].
Additional effects Color changes during high pressure treatment are not under control.
Important process parameters level of the high pressure, holding time on pressure, processing temperature
Important product parameters dose of papain and ficin

What can it be used for?

Products Meat
Operations pressurization
Solutions for short comings Tenderization of the meat.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Not sufficient quality of the meat slice due to tenderization of meat is out of the requested range tenderization.
Operations Low pressure level operations (pressure below 100 MPa).
Other limitations Quality of papain and ficin, temperature of the processing. Low value of the tenderization due to low dose of papain or insufficient high pressure treatment. However, to high doses or to long resting times gives over-tenderization.
Risks or hazards Preliminary experiments of the processing are necessary to predict the optimum enzyme doses and processing parameters (mainly pressure and holding time on pressure).


Maturity The know how is currently in research area. High pressure units are applied in industry but not for tenderization of meat slices.
Modularity /Implementation It can be easily applied in modern high pressure unit. Producers have to invest high level of currency into the high pressure unit.
Consumer aspects The quality of high pressure treated meat is excellent and safety is also guaranteed under control of chilled storage temperatures.
Legal aspects 'Novel Foods Regulation' (Regulation (EC) No 258/97)
Environmental aspects Lower consumption of energy during high pressure treatment compared to heat treatment.

Further Information

Institutes FRIP, NTU Athens, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, University of Reading, AFRC Institute of Food Research
Companies Hiperbaric
References [1] Katsaros, G.I., Katapodis, P., Taoukis, P.S., High hydrostatic pressure inactivation kinetics of the plant proteases ficin and papain, (2009) Journal of Food Engineering, 91 (1), pp. 42-48.

[2] Schenkova, N., Sikulova, M., Jeleníková, J., Pipek, P., Houska, M., Marek, M., Influence of high isostatic pressure and papain treatment on the quality of beef meat, (2007) High Pressure Research, 27 (1), pp. 163-168.

[3] Gomes, M.R.A. , Sumner, I.G. , Ledward, D.A..,, Effects of high pressure on Papain activity and structure, (1997) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 75 (1), pp. 67-72.

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Created by Milan123 on 17 April 2012, at 09:25