High pressure processing
- How does it work?
- What can it be used for?
- What can it not be used for?
- Related Facilities
- Further Information
|Key words||high hydrostatic pressure, inactivation, enzyme, virus, spore, pasteurization, sterilization, structure modification, phase equilibrium, simulation, p-T diagram, pressure intensifier|
How does it work?
|Primary objective||Microbial inactivation, stabilization, structure modification, preservation|
|Working principle|| Thermodynamic: Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibrium of any media such as thermal conductivity, viscosity or diffusivity show a functional relationship to pressure and temperature. Hydrostatic pressure may be generated by the addition of free energy, e.g., heating at constant volume or mechanical volume reduction. Under (high) pressure all reactions of low- and macromolecular compounds follow the principle of Le Chatelièr. Reactions with a negative reaction volume indicate an increasing product formation with increasing pressure. For example dissociation reactions often show a negative volume-difference and are enhanced during pressure application. The physicochemical and biological effects of high pressure application include structural changes of macro-molecules by coagulation, swelling, denaturation and auto-oxidation. (1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12)
|Important process parameters||
|Important product parameters||
What can it be used for?
|Products||Liquid, semi-liquid and solid products in a final or processing package. Meat, fish, chicken, shellfish, vegetable and fruit (apple, carrot and celery) products|
|Operations||Preservation and structure formation, f.e. starch gelation by High Pressure|
|Solutions for short comings||Preservation of heat sensitive products, reduction of processing time, “cold cooking”, structure formation in protein and carbohydrate based material.|
What can it NOT be used for?
|Products||Dry products such as powders. Due to discoloration fresh meat treatment is limited.|
|Operations||Can be used for pasteurisation, sterilization is still under investigation.|
|Risks or hazards||Pressure resistance of target strains different from heat resistance, processing uniformity (mainly temperature distribution) is still an issue for sterilization applications.|
|Maturity||Industrially available up to pressure levels of 600 MPa. About 130 industrial equipments have been installed worldwide with vessel volumes ranging up to 420 L and production volume of more than 120.000 tons. Most of these applications (about 31%) are found in the meat industry.|
|Modularity /Implementation||Inactivation in the final package, scalable by use of multiple machines or pressure vessels. Short processing times allow a simple implementation of the technique, but often high efforts for loading/unloading of products are required.|
|Consumer aspects|| Consumers perceive the technique as environmental friendly and are positive to naturalness of the product. HPP products are seen as positive because the natural texture is retained better, fresher taste and environmental friendliness.
The main benefits linked to HPP technologies are the health-related, taste-related (products’ naturalness) and environment-related benefits(20, 21, 22). According to several researches HPP has been judged to be relatively similar to conventional process technologies in terms of overall consumer acceptability. (23)
|Legal aspects|| HPP foods fall in the scope of Regulation (EC) 258/97 on novel foods and novel food ingredients, article 1, item f. Among other categories, this legislation applies to foods and food ingredients to which a production process not currently used has been applied, and evaluates possible changes in nutritional value, metabolism and level of undesirable substances (19). In January 14th 2008, EU published a proposal for the amendment of Regulation (EC) 258/97 (18).
The competent authorities of the member states agreed in 2001 that the national authorities should decide on the legal status of high pressure treated foods, as it was no longer considered to be a novel process. Case-by-case assessment by national authorities must ensure the products’ safety.
|Environmental aspects||Energy efficient, waste free technique|
Facilities that might be interesting for you
|Institutes||KU Leuven LFT, DIL, IRTA, TU Berlin, Wageningen UR - FBR|
|Companies||Hiperbaric, Resato, Uhde-HPT, APA Processing|
|References|| 1. Ardia, A. (2004). Process considerations on the application of high pressure treatment at elevated temperature levels for food preservation. Ph.D thesis, Berlin, Berlin University of Technology, 94.
2. Ardia, A., Knorr, D. & Heinz, V. (2004). Adiabatic heat modelling for pressure build-up during high-pressure treatment in liquid-food processing. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 82(C1), 89-95.
3. Bridgman, P. W. (1911). Water in the liquid and five solid forms, under pressure. Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sciences, 47, 441-558.
4. Bridgman, P. W. (1912). Water in the liquid and five solid forms under pressure. Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sciences, 47(13), 439-558.
5. Cheftel, J. C. (1992). Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on food constituents: An overview. In C. Balny, R. Hayashi, K. Heremans & P. Masson. High Pressure and Biotechnology (pp. 195-209). John Libbey Eurotext, Montrouge.
6. Cheftel, J. C. (1995). Review: High pressure, microbial inactivation and food preservation. Food Science and Technology International, 1, 75-90.
7. Heinz, V. & Knorr, D. (2002). Effects of high pressure on spores. In M. E. G. Hendrickx & D. Knorr. Ultra high pressure treatments of foods (pp. 77-114). Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York.
8. Heremans, K. (1982). High pressure effects on proteins and other biomolecules. Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering, 11, 1-21.
10. Knorr, D., Heinz, V. & Buckow, R. (2006). High pressure application for food biopolymers. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1764, 619–631.
11. Mathys, A. (2008). Inactivation mechanisms of Geobacillus and Bacillus spores during high pressure thermal sterilization. PhD thesis, Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin, 161.
12. Mathys, A., Reineke, K., Heinz, V. & Knorr, D. (2008). High pressure thermal sterilization- Development and application of temperature controlled spore inactivation studies. High Pressure Research, in press.
13. Mathys, A. & Knorr, D. (2009). The Properties of Water in the Pressure–Temperature Landscape. Food Biophysics, 4(2), 77-82.
14. Patterson, M. F. (2005). A Review: Microbiology of pressure-treated foods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 1400–1409.
15. Setlow, P. (2003). Spore germination. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 6, 550–556.
16. Smeller, L. (2002). Pressure-temperature phase diagram of biomolecules. BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1595, 11-29.
17. Smelt, J. P. P. M. (1998). Recent advances in the microbiology of high pressure processing. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 9, 152-158.
18. European Union (2008). 5 COM(2007)872: Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on novel foods and amending Regulation (EC) No xxx/xxxx common procedure.
19. European Union (1997). European Parliament and of the Council. Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients. OJL 043, 14/02/1997, p. 0001-6.
20. Cardello A.V. et al. (2007). Consumer perceptions of foods processed by innovative and emerging technologies: A conjoint analytic study Original Research Article Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, Volume 8, Issue 1, 73-83
21. Nielsen H.B. et al. (2009). Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production, Appetite 52: 115–126
22. lsen, N.V. et al. (2010). Consumer acceptance of high-pressure processing and pulsed-electric field: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 21: 464-472
23. Sorenson, D. & Henchion, M. (2011). Understanding consumers’ cognitive structures with regard to high pressure processing: A means-end chain application to the chilled ready meals category, Food Quality.
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