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Improving gluten free bread formulations containing zein proteins using hydrocolloids


Key words gluten free, hydrocolloid, HPMC, quality, improvement, bread, zein
Latest version 2011/05/13
Completed by SP

How does it work?

Primary objective Improving gluten free bread formulas containing zein protein.
Working principle Zein proteins are a family of protein that originates from maize and have shown potential in replacing the role of gluten together with starch. Zein interacts together with starch but they cannot together reach the same viscoelastic behaviour that gluten-containing formulas do. This can be solved with the addition of the hydrocolloid HPMC (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose). This addition to the zein-starch matrix creates a similar viscoelastic network that gluten-containing bread has. HPMC is added during the dough preparation and interacts together with zein and starch (from the maize). This procedure creates dough that resembles gluten containing dough with good gas retention and good crumb texture. The temperature should be kept above the glass transition temperature for zein proteins (which is 29°C) during dough preparation and baking. If not, the viscoelastic network crystallises and can easily be destroyed by outer force. Even a temperature drop below 29°C and reheating with no outer force applied to the dough has a negative effect on the quality of the final product. The size of the zein particles also seems an important aspect. If they are too small, the viscoelastic network cannot be created, which is not wanted.
Additional effects HPMC increases the water retention in the bread. Hydrocolloids have shown to decrease the staling effect.
Important process parameters Temperature above 29°C during preparation.
Important product parameters Concentration of HPMC, size of the zein particles.

What can it be used for?

Products This technology is aimed for gluten-free bread formulas.
Operations For dough and bread improvement. For instance addition of HPMC can reduce the staling effect.
Solutions for short comings About 1 % of humans are affected by celiac disease throughout the world. None of these can eat gluten-containing food without any impact. Gluten exists in wheat and related cereals such as rye, barley and oat. These cereals exist in large varieties of food products such as breads, sauces and breakfast cereals. So gluten-free bread formulas have a large market. A big industrial need for good quality gluten-free bread therefore exists.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Other breads than gluten free breads.
Operations This technology can only be used in gluten free formulas containing zein and starch.
Other limitations This technology is only applicable for bread improvement of gluten-free breads. It is therefore very specialised and narrow.
Risks or hazards Zein protein is listed as a GRAS product by the FDA.

The EU and the FDA also approve HPMC as a food additive with the e number E464.


Maturity This technology is available at laboratory scale.
Modularity /Implementation Since the temperature should be kept above 29°C during the dough preparation there can be some problems with the implementation of the technology into production lines.
Consumer aspects The quality increase is probably regarded as positive.

The addition of zein starch and HPMC can increase the price of the bread, which is seen as negative for the consumer especially as gluten-free products are already very expensive.

Legal aspects Zein protein is listed as a GRAS product by the FDA.

The EU and the FDA also approve HPMC as a food additive with the e number E464.

Environmental aspects None known.

Further Information

Institutes SP, FRIP, U.S Department of agriculture (USDA)
References 1. Andersson H., Öhgren C., Johansson D., Kniola M., Stading M. (2011) Extensional flow, viscoelascity and baking performance of gluten-free zein-starch dough supplemented with hydrocolloids. Food Hydrocolloids, 25(6), 1-9.

2. Shober T. J., Bean S. R., Boyle D. L. Park S. (2008) Improved viscoelastic zein-starch doughs for leavened gluten-free breads: Their rheology and microstructure, Journal of Cereal Science, 48(3), 755-767.

3. Shober T. J., Moreau R. A., Bean S. R., Boyle D. l. (2010) Removal of surface lipids improves the functionality of commercial zein in viscoelastic zein-starch dough for gluten-free breadmaking, Journal of Cereal Science, 52(3), 417-425.

4. Cureton P., Fasano A. (2009) The increasing incidence of celiac disease and the range of gluten-free products in the marketplace. In: Gallagher E., (Ed.) Gluten Free Food Science and Technology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 1-15.

Temperature above 29°C during preparation. Concentration of HPMC, size of the zein particles. not applicable 2.1.2 chemical conversion biotechnology Science Direct Search terms: gluten-free, gluten-free AND dough, gluten-free AND bread WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status

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Created by IeselVdP on 18 May 2011, at 10:28