Content

Send Us Feedback

Interactive Technology Portal
From Food Tech Innovation Portal

Water-soluble natural yellow dye

Identification

Key words phloridzin, dye, water-soluble, yellow, apple, enzyme, natural, food colorant
Latest version 2013/09/05
Completed by INRA - IATE

How does it work?

Primary objective Water-soluble yellow dye suitable for food applications with improved properties (4)
Working principle Up to date, the most commonly used yellow dyes in the food industry have been tartrazin and curcumin, both showing disadvantages: tartrazin is targeted in the context of evolving food safety regulations in Europe and North America and curcumin has limited applications because of its low water solubility.

A new water-soluble dye has been produced: Phloridzin Oxidation Products (POP). Phloridzin is a natural polyphenol specific to apples, which natural oxidation, in juices or ciders for example, leads to POP. (3)(5)

To produce the dye, oxidation of phloridzin in apple pomace (= solid waste of juice production) has been triggered by enzymatic conversion, leading to a family of similar molecules that constitute the dye.

The POP dye is highly water-soluble with a strong colouring capacity from bright yellow (pH < 5) to orange (pH> 6), see figure below (1)(2).

alt text

Images
Additional effects The POP dye can also be esterified in ethanol/HCl, leading to a 98% yield. Both the POP dye and its ethyl ester show free radical-scavenging activities comparable to those of well-known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, trolox or (−)-epicatechin. (2) Therefore, they can be be used as antioxidative food additives.

Besides food applications, the POP dye can also be used in cosmetics and hygiene.(1)

Important process parameters
Important product parameters The pH of the medium to be dyed will impact the final colour.

Half saturation at pH 3 was obtained for a concentration close to 30 mg/L.

POP is only weakly degraded by prolonged storage at ambient temperature (with minor variations depending on the pH) (2)

What can it be used for?

Products Usable in all watery (more than fatty) food products
Operations waste reuse
Solutions for short comings use of natural dyes / natural colorants for food, cosmetics, pharma

use of waste, by-products

replacement of tartrazine, curcumine for watery matrices

What can it NOT be used for?

Products fatty food products
Operations Any other than waste reuse and/or dye extraction
Other limitations the POP dye is not fat-soluble (1)

Maximum yield for POP (84%) is obtained only after 47 h of enzymatic reaction, the colourless precursor being the major contaminant (12%) (2)

Risks or hazards Safety under assessment

Implementation

Maturity The production process is internationally patented, and licenses are available through INRA Transfert. No license has been exploited so far (December 2012)
Modularity /Implementation This technology can replace the existing water-soluble yellow dyes for food applications.
Consumer aspects Interest for natural products
Legal aspects The production process is internationally patented: WO2005/049598 (2005)

Safety under assessment

General legislation for dyes in food applications: EU directive 94/36/EC, EU regulation 1333/2008

Environmental aspects Use of waste.

Enzymatic reactions occur at low temperature compared to conventional chemical reactions, with no other solvent than water.

Further Information

Institutes INRA - URC BFL
Companies INRA Transfert
References 1. Sanoner, P., Guyot, S., Leguerneve, C., Lequere, J.M., Drilleau, J.F. and Renard, C. 2005. Colouring hydrosoluble yellow preparation derived from dihydrochalcones. WO2005/049598

2. Guyot S., S. Serrand, J.M. Le Quéré, P. Sanoner and C.M.G.C Renard 2007. Enzymatic synthesis and physicochemical characterisation of Phloridzin Oxidation Products (POP), a new water-soluble yellow dye deriving from apple. Innovative Food Science & emerging technologies 8: 443-450.

3. Serrand, S., S. Bernillon, J. M. Le Quéré, P. Sanoner and S. Guyot 2006. The role of polyphenoloxidase in the synthesis of a yellow pigment derived from apple. Proceeding of Enzymes for food - Symposium européen. Rennes, France, pp 131-139.

4. This H. 2006. Artificiel ou synthétique ? Les fruits sont des mines de molécules utiles et encore non exploitées : le POPj est un nouveau colorant jaune très intéressant. Pour La Science. Page 4.

5. Le Guernevé C., Sanoner P., Drilleau J.F., Guyot S. 2004. New products obtained by enzymatic oxidation of phloridzin. Tetraedr. Lett. 45:6673-6677

The pH of the medium to be dyed will impact the final colour.

Half saturation at pH 3 was obtained for a concentration close to 30 mg/L.

POP is only weakly degraded by prolonged storage at ambient temperature (with minor variations depending on the pH) (2)warning.png"The pH of the medium to be dyed will impact the final colour.

Half saturation at pH 3 was obtained for a concentration close to 30 mg/L.

POP is only weakly degraded by prolonged storage at ambient temperature (with minor variations depending on the pH) (2)" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

2.1.3 chemical, biological other biotechnology Inra Transfert database of technological offers; contact nathalie.turc@paris.inra.fr WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status



Translate this page with Google Translator (automatic translation)
Created by Hte inra on 7 December 2012, at 19:11