Preventing or postponing wheat bread staling with enzymes
- How does it work?
- What can it be used for?
- What can it not be used for?
- Related Facilities
- Further Information
|Key words||bread, staling, enzyme, amylase, alpha-amylase, lipase, Actinidin|
How does it work?
|Primary objective||Prevention or postponement of bread staling by addition of enzymes into the dough or flour before baking.|
|Working principle|| The principle is to add enzyme to wheat flour before dough preparation or during the mixing of the dough. The enzymes will be activated when in contact with water and at the required temperature. They will then be deactivated during the baking process (due to high temperature denaturation).
The enzymes used for prevention/postponing of bread staling are mainly amylases (more specifically alpha amylases). There are also other kinds of enzymes that have shown to retard bread staling but has not been as thoroughly investigated as the amylases. Lipases, lipoxygenases and some proteases are examples that have shown potential to be anti-staling.
Bread staling itself is not well understood on a molecular level but it is known that certain enzymes have a good anti-staling effect through empirical testing. For amylases it is thought that the side chains of the amylopectin are affected by the enzymes.
|Additional effects||An enzyme used in bread making contributes to a wide variety of improvements in bread and bread making. For instance amylases can beyond the anti-staling effect improve loaf volume, improve crumb texture and crust colour. Other enzymes can improve dough strength and increase dough stability.|
|Important process parameters||Temperature.|
|Important product parameters||Type of enzyme (heat resistant or not), type of bread, concentration of enzyme.|
What can it be used for?
|Products||Enzymes can be used in a wide variety of products, but as an antistaling agent they can only be used in bakery product since the phenomenon only exists there.|
|Solutions for short comings||This technique can resolve the issue of bread staling and therefore prolong the shelf-life of the product.|
What can it NOT be used for?
|Products||It can only be used for bakery products since the staling phenomenon only occurs there|
|Operations||Technology only for baking.|
|Other limitations||Temperature of baking, time.|
|Risks or hazards||Not known|
|Maturity||Addition of enzymes exists in the bread making industry today, either as an addition in flour or in the dough preparation.|
|Modularity /Implementation||This technology can be implemented in a product line.|
|Consumer aspects||As enzymes are consumed in baking they are used as a process aid and it is therefore not required to be present at the table of contents and therefore is not exposed much to the consumer. Therefore consumers are not aware of this and the impact of enzymes should be low.|
|Legal aspects||There exist regulation documents for EU countries regarding enzymes, please read from the following link for more information.|
|Environmental aspects||Not known currently.|
Facilities that might be interesting for you
|Institutes||SP, KU Leuven LFCB|
|References|| Goesaert, H., Gebruers, K., Courtin, C. M., Brijs, K. and Delcour, J. A. (2007) Enzymes in Breadmaking, in Bakery Products: Science and Technology (ed Y. H. Hui), Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470277553.ch19
Gray J. A., & Bemiller J. N., (2003) Bread Staling: Molecular Basis and Control. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety p 1-21
MacGregor E. A., Janeček Š, Svensson B., (2001) Relationship of sequence and structure to specify in the α-amylase family of enzymes. Biochemical et Biophysical Acta 1546 p 1-20
Svennson B., Tovborg Jensen M., Mori H., Bak-Jensen K. S., Bønsager B., Nielsen P. K., Kramhøft B., Prætorius-Ibba M., Nøhr J., Juge N., Greffe L., Williamson G., Driguez H., (2002) Fascinating facets of function and structure of amylotive enzymes of glycoside hydrolase family 13. Biologia 57 (suppl. 1) p. 5-19
Gerrard J. A., Every D., Sutton K. H., Gilpin M. J. 1997. The role of maltodextrins in the staling of bread. Journal of Cereal Science 26:201.
Hug-Iten S., Escher F., Conde-Petit B., 2001. Structural properties of starch in bread and bread model systems: Influence of an antistaling α-amylase. Cereal Chem 78:421.
Duran E., Leon A., Barber B., Benedito De Barber C., (2001). Effect of low molecular weight dextrins on gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. European Food Research and Technology 212:203 [Chem Abstr 135:60349 (2001)].
Moayedallie S., Mirzaei M., Paterson J. (2010) Bread improvers: Copmarisation of a range of lipases with a traditional emulsifier. Food Chemistry 122 p 495-499
Hebeda R. E., Bowles L. K., Teague W. M., (1991) Use of intermediate temperature stability enzymes fir retarding staling in baked goods. Cereal Food World 36 p. 309-316
Lin W., Lineback D.R., (1990). Changes in carbohydrate fractions in enzyme-supplemented bread and the potential relationship to staling. Starch/Stärke 42:385.
Temperature. Type of enzyme (heat resistant or not), type of bread, concentration of enzyme. not applicable 2.1.2 chemical stabilizing, structure forming biotechnology ScienceDirect, Wiley Interscience . WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status