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Pulsed electric field processing

Identification

Key words Cell permeabilization, cell disintegration, pre-treatment, mass transport, microbial inactivation, electric fields, ohmic heating, preservation, electric field, electroporation, pulsed electric field, PEF, non thermal processing method
Latest version 2012/07/17
Completed by DIL

How does it work?

Primary objective Stabilization, microbial inactivation, preservation, separation.
Working principle Physical – Electroporation -Permeabilization of cell membranes

By exposure to an external electrical field a transmembrane potential is induced across biological cell membranes, resulting in membrane permeabilization. The effect also termed as electroporation results in a leakage of cellular content as well as loss of vitality, allowing an improvement of mass transport across cell membranes as well as microbial inactivation. Whereas a targeted effect on cellular membranes is observed, only a limited effect on macromolecules such as carbohydrates or proteins or nutrients such as vitamins, minerals or sugar is observed. The technique is continuously operable, technical requirements include a pulse generator to supply electric energy at the desired voltage and current level and a treatment chamber, where the product is exposed to the electric field. Due to electric energy input during treatment a temperature increase is observed, after pulsed electric field (PEF) processing often cooling is applied.

Images
Additional effects
  • Ohmic heating
  • Enzyme inactivation
  • Textural changes
  • Cutting improvement
  • Flavour retention
  • Release of cytoplasmatic content
Important process parameters
  • Electric Field strength
  • Energy input
  • Temperature
  • Treatment time

Other process parameters are the pulse shape (square wave pulses are most effective) and configuration of the treatment chamber (co-linear configuration is the most common design of the treatment chamber)

Important product parameters
  • pH
  • protein
  • lipid
  • salt
  • sugar content
  • water activity

What can it be used for?

Products Liquid and semi-liquid, pumpable products. emulsions, suspensions, for example: soup, sauce, juice, smoothie
Operations Preservation and separation
Solutions for short comings

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Not for solid material, aqueous product required, conductivity limitations below 0,1 or above 30 mS/cm, maximum particle size 20 mm, carbonated products require back-pressure application.
Operations It can be used for pasteurisation only. Limited inactivation of enzymes.
Other limitations Considerable investment cost and maintenance costs.
Risks or hazards Electrochemical reactions and electrode erosion.

Implementation

Maturity Commercially available up to treatment capacities of 10.000 l/h at a voltage of up to 30 kV and average power of up to 240 kW.
Modularity /Implementation Easy implementation into existing lines, continuous operability. Processing time in a range of seconds, in contrast to enzyme or thermal treatment no holding time required.
Consumer aspects Consumers perceive the technique as environmental friendly and are positive to naturalness of the product.
Legal aspects
  • EU: According to available scientific papers: no novel food approval required
  • No declaration or labeling required
  • US: FDA letter of no objection (1996)
Environmental aspects Energy efficient, waste free technique

Further Information

Institutes DIL, TU Berlin, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, University of Lleida, University of Zaragoza, University College Dublin, University of Technology of Compiègne, Lund University, NAIK EKI, University of Salerno, Ohio State University, Washington State University, University of Guelph, Swinburne University of Technology, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Wageningen UR - FBR
Companies DIL Technologie GmbH, Diversified Technologies, ScandiNova, KEA-Tec
References
  1. Huang, K. and J. Wang (2009). "Designs of pulsed electric fields treatment chambers for liquid foods pasteurization process: A review." Journal of Food Engineering 95(2): 227-239.
  2. Schilling, S., T. Alber, et al. (2007). "Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Treatment of Apple Mash on Juice Yield and Quality Attributes of Apple Juices." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 8(1): 127-134.
  3. Lelievield, H., S. Notermans, et al. (2007). Food preservation by pulsed electric fields. Boca Raton, CRC Press.
  4. Toepfl, S., V. Heinz, et al. (2006). Applications of pulsed electric field technology for the food industry. Pulsed electric field technology for the food industry. J. Raso and V. Heinz. Berlin, Springer: 197-221.
  5. Liang, Z., Z. Cheng, et al. (2006). "Inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in apple cider using a continuous flow pulsed electric field system." LWT 39: 350-356.
  6. Roodenburg, B., J. Morren, et al. (2005). "Metal release in a stainless steel pulsed electric field system. Part I. Effect of different pulse shapes; theory and experimental method." Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 6(3): 327-336.
  7. Sepulveda, D. D., M. M. Góngora-Nieto, et al. (2005). "Production of extended shelf-life milk by processing pasteurized milk with pulsed electric fields." Journal of Food Engineering 67: 81-86.
  8. Lebovka, N. I., I. Praporscic, et al. (2004). "Effect of moderate thermal and pulsed electric field treatments on textural properties of carrots, potatoes and apples." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 5(1): 9-16.
  9. Henriette Boel Nielsen, Anne-Mette Sonne, Klaus G. Grunert, Diana Banati, Annamaria Pollak-Toth, Zoltan Lakner, Nina Veflen Olsen, Tanja Pajk Zontar, Marjana Peterman, Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production, Appetite, Volume 52, Issue 1, February 2009, Pages 115-126.

  • Electric Field strength
  • Energy input
  • Temperature
  • Treatment time

Other process parameters are the pulse shape (square wave pulses are most effective) and configuration of the treatment chamber (co-linear configuration is the most common design of the treatment chamber)warning.png"<span></span>

  • Electric Field strength
  • Energy input
  • Temperature
  • Treatment time

Other process parameters are the pulse shape (square wave pulses are most effective) and configuration of the treatment chamber (co-linear configuration is the most common design of the treatment chamber)" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

  • pH
  • protein
  • lipid
  • salt
  • sugar content
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  • pH
  • protein
  • lipid
  • salt
  • sugar content
  • water activity" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

PEF equipment 2.1.1 physical separation, stabilizing biotechnology, nanotechnology Sciencedirect, Web of science Search terms: pulsed electric field processing WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status



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Created by Hamoen on 17 January 2012, at 11:18