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Reducing acrylamide formation during baking

Identification

Key words cereals, acrylamide, temperature, organic acid, carcinogen, baking, steam baking
Latest version 2011/09/01
Completed by SP

How does it work?

Primary objective Reducing acrylamide formation in cereal products
Working principle Acrylamide is a potentially carcinogenic compound that has been found in fried food products containing protein and carbohydrate, more specifically the amino acid (the building blocks of protein) asparagine and a reducing sugar (carbohydrate). Reduction of this compound is therefore wanted. Acrylamide formation is present in several reaction paths, but the most common one is via the so-called Maillard reaction. This reaction is rather a family of reactions that occurs when heating carbohydrates and proteins above 150°C.

The most important process parameters in reduction of acrylamide in cereals are the temperature and moisture. During baking of white bread the crust temperature in combination with the water content have a significant effect on acrylamide formation. Higher temperatures results in higher acrylamide content. Steam baking and falling temperature baking decreases the acrylamide concentration. The use of steam for at least 10 min during baking of bread can reduce the acrylamide concentration by approximately 50% compared to baking without steam. Steam baking reduces the crust temperature, and the temperature difference between the crust and the crumb, resulting in lower acrylamide formations. Also, lowering the oven temperature after a few minutes could reduce the formation of acrylamide up to 67%, although the bread colour becomes lighter (2).

Another limiting factor for the formation of acrylamide in cereals is the amino acid asparagine. Choosing a flour variety that is low in asparagine is desired. Addition of the enzyme asparaginase prior to main processing can reduce the formation of acrylamide by up to 90% in cereal products (1,8).

For bread production the choice of sugar added to the bread is also important. If a non-reducing sugar such as sucrose is added instead of invert sugar (mixture of glucose and fructose) a reduction of 60% in acrylamide has been observed (1).

Addition of glycin to the dough reduces the acrylamide content in flat bread and bread crust (3). Leaveners are also important. Several studies have shown that ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) increases the concentration of acrylamide compared to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) (1).

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Additional effects Lowering temperature: increased process times, lighter bread colour.
Important process parameters Time, temperature, flour milling intensity (4), additives to product.

Models can be used for estimation of acrylamide formation based on the important product and process parameters (9,10).

Important product parameters Moisture content, type of cereal, ash content of the flour, water content, variety, weather conditions during growth, asparagine content, reducing-sugar content.

What can it be used for?

Products Bread, cookies
Operations Baking, roasting
Solutions for short comings Reduction of a potential carcinogenic substance that has been given a lot of attention in media.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Non-acrylamide forming food products (e.g. high-moisture food products).
Operations Acrylamide is only formed in processes with high temperatures (above app. 120-130˚C for traditional baked bread (2)).
Other limitations Lower temperatures results in a lighter crust colour which might be unacceptable from a consumer standpoint. The aroma of the bread could also be affected when lowering the temperature.
Risks or hazards Replacement of ammonium bicarbonate with sodium bicarbonate will increase the sodium intake (6).

Prolonging yeast-fermentation can decrease the formation of acrylamide but can also increase the formation of another contaminant i.e. 3-monochloropropaniol (6).

Implementation

Maturity Steam baking is commonly used during the initial stage of baking to improve crust texture and colour.
Modularity /Implementation These technologies are generally easily implemented into the existing production lines. The additives can be added in the dough preparation step. Enzymatic treatment with asparaginase might need an extra step in the process chain. Steam baking and falling temperature baking are simple modifications of conventional baking.
Consumer aspects Positive, a reduction of a potential carcinogen is probably regarded as positive.
Legal aspects None known
Environmental aspects None known

Further Information

Institutes SP, SLU, National Food Administration
Companies Novozymes, DSM
References 1. Claus A., Carle R., Schieber A., (2008) Acrylamide in cereal products: a review, Journal of Cereal Science 47 p 118-133.

2. Ahrné, L., Andersson, C.G., Floberg, P., Rosén, J., Lingnert, H. (2007). Effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation during baking of white bread: Steam and falling temperature baking. LWT 40, 1708-1715.

3. Brathen, E., Kita, A., Knutsen, S.H., Wicklund, T. (2005). Addition of glycin reduces the content of acrylamide in cereal and potato products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(8), 3259-3264.

4. Haase, N., Matthaeus, B., Vosmann, K. (2003). Acrylamide in baked products – State of the art. Getreide, Mehl und brot, 57(3), 180-184.

5. Claus A., Schreiter P., Weber A., Greaff S., Hermann W., Claupein W., Scheiber A., Carle R., (2006) Influence of agronomy factors and extraction rate on the acrylamide contents in yeast-leavened breads, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry.

6. Capuano, E., Fogliano, V. (2011). Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): a review on metabolism, toxicity, occurence in food and mitigation strategies. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 44, 793-810.

7. Marconi et al. (2010) Acrylamide risk in food products: The shortbread case study. Analytical methods. 2, 1686-1691.

8. Anese et al. (2011) Modelling the effect of asparaginase in reducing acrylamide formation in biscuits. Food Chemistry. 126, 435-440.

9. Franke, K., Strijowski, U., Reimerdes, E.H., (2009). Kinetics of acrylamide formation in potato powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 90 (1), pp. 135-140.

10. Franke, K., Sell, M., Reimerdes, E.H., (2005). Quality related minimization of acrylamide formation - An integrated approach. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 561, pp. 357-369.

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Created by Evelina on 30 September 2011, at 11:43