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Reducing meat oxidation

Identification

Key words meat, oxidaion, lipid, antioxidant, fat
Latest version 2010/12/23
Completed by SP

How does it work?

Primary objective To reduce or prevent (if possible) the oxidation of meat.
Working principle Meat oxidation or rather lipid oxidation in meat is one of the largest contributors to spoilage in meat. This reaction creates reaction products that are responsible for rancid off flavours, and so called warmed over flavours (WOF). To prevent these compounds to form, the lipid oxidation reaction must be inhibited or at least repressed. There are several methods to try to stop this reaction to happen for instance to add an antioxidant to the meat product , alteration of the animals feed or adding special proteins

Oxidation of meat is a reaction that takes place in the lipid part of the meat. An initiator (pro-oxidant) starts the reaction by oxidizing a lipid acid into several degradation products. Initially the main products are hydroperoxides which is further broken down into secondary destruction products. Some of these products create a rancid off flavour and this is not desirable. A substance that prevents oxidative deterioration in one way or another can therefore be added. This substance is called an antioxidant. These compounds react in different ways that prevent the oxidation reaction. One method is that the antioxidants inhibit the pro-oxidants to oxidise the reactant. In meat, the main pro-oxidants are transition metals (primary iron), heme proteins (iron containing) and enzymes. Each of these can be inhibited to some extent. Transition metals are the main pro-oxidant in meat and the main transition metal existing in skeletal muscle is iron. A good way to inactivate iron is to add chelating proteins such as ferritin, by doing this the iron will be contained in the protein and will be stored in its less reactive form. Another method is to reduce the amount of free iron in the muscle. A third method is to try to inhibit the reactivity of radicals with antioxidants. A radical is a molecule with a free electron and is therefore highly reactive and can either reduce or oxidise another molecule. In the meat oxidation process radicals are formed as a degradation product of the initial oxidation of lipids. To prevent the radicals to further oxidise lipids, antioxidants are added. These antioxidants are called radical scavengers or chain breakers. An example of this kind of antioxidant is alpha tocopherol (one of a few compounds that go under the name vitamin E). These compounds have been used for many years as inhibitors for oxidative rancidity.

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Additional effects To reduce oxidation of meat, a substance is added to somehow prevent this reaction. So depending on the substance used, the side effects will differ. It has been shown that antioxidants added to meat to prevent meat oxidation have additional beneficial effects, for instance vitamin E.
Important process parameters Type of process (cooked, cured, dried, fried etc)
Important product parameters Type of meat (chicken breast muscle, beef loin, etc.), type of antioxidant.

The processing of the meat is of importance for the choice of antioxidant. For example, vitamin E is more effective on raw meat than on cooked meat, and nitrites are highly effective antioxidants for cured meats. However, nitrite is only used for cured meats as it changes the colour of the myoglobin protein (to a bright red) which is not wanted by the consumer in other types of (processed) meat. Whether the antioxidant is water or lipid soluble is also an important factor for the effectiveness the antioxidant and where it is effective. Water soluble antioxidants work best in lipid rich foods and vice versa. This is due to the fact that water soluble antioxidants concentrate at the lipid-air interface or in reverse micelles in the bulk; these are the places where most of the lipid oxidation takes place and therefore the lower water content results in higher concentration and more effectiveness.

What can it be used for?

Products Can be used for any meat-based food product where reduction of oxidation is necessary. Though it should be stated that, the food product itself largely determines the technology used to reduce meat oxidation.
Operations Stabilising, extended shelf-life.
Solutions for short comings Oxidation of meat is a very large contributor to meat spoilage. This technique can prevent or prolong the occurrence of this problem and gives therefore a longer shelf-life and reduces spoilage.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Non lipid containing products (addition of antioxidants reduces the lipid oxidation in other matrixes than meat).
Operations Non meat products.
Other limitations Lipid oxidation reactions are complex and food matrixes are also complex, it can therefore be hard to evaluate where in the matrix the reaction takes place. Complex matrixes also make it difficult to measure lipid oxidation. The measurement systems are somewhat flawed but works in general. TBARS are the most common used measuring system for lipid oxidation.
Risks or hazards None known currently.

Implementation

Maturity Some of these technologies are used in the industry today. Free radical scavenging has been used for decades but unfortunately only a few new antioxidants (for instance 4-Hexylresorcinol) have been introduced since then, this due to economic barriers including expensive government approvals.
Modularity /Implementation Most of the techniques are additions of a substance to either a slaughtered meat piece or the livestock via the feed before slaughter. There should be no problems in a inserting this in the production line.
Consumer aspects There are some problems towards the consumer regarding adding non ”natural” antioxidants, such as BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene).
Legal aspects In EU antioxidants is classed as a food additive and follows the legislature for food additives. For further information please visit
Environmental aspects None known currently.

Further Information

Institutes SP, IRTA, ARC
Companies Eastman Chemical Company
References 1. McMillin K. W. 1996 Initiation of oxidative processes in muscle foods. In Proceednings of American Meat Science. 49th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conf. Brigham Youn University, Provo, Utah pp. 56-63.

2. Mottram D.S. 1994 In Flavour of meat and meat products, ed. F. Shahidi. Blackie Academic ad Professional, Glasgow pp. 210.

3. Decker E. A. and Hultin H.O. 1992 Lipid oxidation ion muscle foods via redox iorn . In Lipid Oxidation in Foods ed. A.J St. Angelo pp 33-54 American Chemical Society Symposium Series Volume 500 Am. Chem. Soc. Books, Washington D.C.

4. Dunford H.B 1987. Free radicals in iron-containing systems. Free Rad. Biol. Med 3 pp: 405-421.

5. Kanner J. Bartov I. Salan M. and Doll L 1990 Effect of dietary iron levels on in situ turkey muscle peroxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38 p 601-604.

6. Decker E. A. 2009 Challanges to control rancidity in complex foods. Food Science and Technology 23 (4) p 28-29.

7. Porter W. L, 1993 Paradoxial behaviour of antioxidants in food and biological systems. Toxicol. Ind. Health 9 p 93-122.

8. Frankel E. N. 1998 Lipid Oxidation; Oily Press Dundee, Scotland p 129-160.

9. Liu Q. Scheller K. K. Schaefer D. M. Arp S. C. and Williams S. N. 1994 Journal of Food Science 59 p 288.

10. Faustmann C. Cassens R.G. Schaefer D. M. Beuge D. R. Williams S. N. And Scheller K.K 1989 Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E Journal of Foood Science 54 p 858-862.

11. Younathan M. T. 1985. Causes ad preventaion od warmed-over flavour. In Preoceedings of Am. Meat Sci. Assn. 38th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conf., Louisiana State University, baton Rouge pp. 74-80.

12. Shahidi F. 1992 Preventaion of lipid oxidation in muscle fodds by nitrite and nitrite free compositions. In ”Lipid oxidation in foods” Am Chem. Soc. Books Washington D.C.

13. Gray J.I, Gomaa E., Buckley D.J. 1996 Oxidative Quality and Shelf Life of Meats. Meat Science 43 p. S111-S123.

14. Grün I.U., Ahn J., Clarke A.D., Lorenzen C.L., 2006 Reducing Oxidation of Meat. Food Technology.

15. Frankel E.N, Finley J.W., How To Standardize the Multiplicity of Methods To Evaluate Natural Antioxidants. 2008 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 4901-4908.

16. Miayazawa T., Shibata A., Sookwong P., Kawakami Y., Eitsuka T., Asai A., Oikawa S., Nakagawa K 2009 Antiangiogenic and anticancer potential of unsatutated vitamin E (tocotrienol) Journal of Nutritional Biochemestry 20 p 79-86.

Type of process (cooked, cured, dried, fried etc) Type of meat (chicken breast muscle, beef loin, etc.), type of antioxidant.

The processing of the meat is of importance for the choice of antioxidant. For example, vitamin E is more effective on raw meat than on cooked meat, and nitrites are highly effective antioxidants for cured meats. However, nitrite is only used for cured meats as it changes the colour of the myoglobin protein (to a bright red) which is not wanted by the consumer in other types of (processed) meat. Whether the antioxidant is water or lipid soluble is also an important factor for the effectiveness the antioxidant and where it is effective. Water soluble antioxidants work best in lipid rich foods and vice versa. This is due to the fact that water soluble antioxidants concentrate at the lipid-air interface or in reverse micelles in the bulk; these are the places where most of the lipid oxidation takes place and therefore the lower water content results in higher concentration and more effectiveness.warning.png"Type of meat (chicken breast muscle, beef loin, etc.), type of antioxidant.

The processing of the meat is of importance for the choice of antioxidant. For example, vitamin E is more effective on raw meat than on cooked meat, and nitrites are highly effective antioxidants for cured meats. However, nitrite is only used for cured meats as it changes the colour of the myoglobin protein (to a bright red) which is not wanted by the consumer in other types of (processed) meat. Whether the antioxidant is water or lipid soluble is also an important factor for the effectiveness the antioxidant and where it is effective. Water soluble antioxidants work best in lipid rich foods and vice versa. This is due to the fact that water soluble antioxidants concentrate at the lipid-air interface or in reverse micelles in the bulk; these are the places where most of the lipid oxidation takes place and therefore the lower water content results in higher concentration and more effectiveness." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. not applicable 2.1.2 chemical, biological stabilizing biotechnology FSTA websearch WikiSysop :Template:Review document :Template:Review status



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Created by IeselVdP on 3 January 2011, at 10:23