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Reducing meat oxidation by dietary addition of antioxidants


Key words meat, oxidation, antioxidant, feed, lipids, fat
Latest version 2010/12/23
Completed by SP

How does it work?

Primary objective The primary objective for this technology is to add known antioxidants to livestock feed to increase the occurrence of antioxidants in the livestock’s muscles tissue. This is done to decrease meat oxidation of the meat after slaughter.
Working principle Addition of antioxidants to livestock feed prior to slaughter has shown to increase the amount of antioxidants in the muscle tissue after slaughter, and as a consequence to reduce oxidation of meat. This technique is more effective than adding antioxidants to meat after slaughter. This method is best suited for antioxidants with a high bioavailability, for instance alfa tocopherol (vitamin E).
Additional effects Lower rate of discoloration of meat (vitamin E), improved water holding capacity (vitamin E).
Important process parameters Type of antioxidant, bioavailability of antioxidant, concentration of antioxidant in feed, time of addition before slaughter.
Important product parameters Type of animal species, type of animal race.

What can it be used for?

Products Livestock feed.
Operations Addition to feed.
Solutions for short comings This technique can prolong the time before meat gets rancid and therefore increases the shelf-life of the product. Also, addition of antioxidants can increase the nutritional value of the meat.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products This method cannot be used for non-animal products.
Operations The addition of antioxidants to the animal feed should be done in the end of the processing, since many antioxidants are not stable enough to withstand process parameters such as high temperatures (>70 °C).
Other limitations This technique is restricted to addition in livestock feed.
Risks or hazards The risks and hazards for both the animal and the consumer are dependent on what type of antioxidant that is added to the feed. Always control the antioxidants for hazardous side effects.


Maturity This technology is used in pilot scale tests.
Modularity /Implementation Addition of antioxidant should be implemented as a last stage of feed processing. It can be implemented without problem.
Consumer aspects Today many consumers want more natural ingredients in their food. There might be a negative response to dietary addition of artificial antioxidants in feed. Artificial antioxidants are often much more efficient than natural antioxidants.
Legal aspects The use of additives in feedstuffs is regulated according to the following link
Environmental aspects No environmental issues are expected.

Further Information

Institutes SP, IRTA, ARC, Institute of animal science Prague
References 1. Faustmann, C., Cassens, R.G., Schaefer, D. M., Beuge, D. R., Williams, S.N. and Scheller, K.K (1989) Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. Journal of Food Science, 54, 858-862.

2. Govaris, A., Botsoglou, N., Papageorgiou, G., Botsoglou, E. and Ambrosaidis, I. (2004) Dietary versus post-mortem use of oregano oil and/or alpha-tocopherol in turkeys to inhibit development of lipid oxidation in meat during refrigerated storage. International journal of food science and nutrition, 55 (2), 115-123.

3. Phillips, A.L., Faustmann, C., Lynch, M.P., Govini, K.E., Hoagland, T.A. and Zinn, S.A. (2001) Effects if dietart alpha-tocopherol supplementation on color and lipid stability in pork. Meat Science, 58, 389-393.

4. Porter, W.L. (1993) Paradoxial behaviour of antioxidants in food and biological systems. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 9, 93-122.

5. Frankel, E.N. (1998) Lipid Oxidation; Oily Press Dundee, Scotland, 129-160.

6. Liu, Q., Scheller, K.K., Schaefer, D.M., Arp, S.C. and Williams, S.N. (1994) Dietary α-Tocopheryl Acetate Contributes to Lipid Stability in Cooked Beef. Journal of Food Science, 59, 288.

7. Frankel, E.N, Finley, J.W. (2008) How To Standardize the Multiplicity of Methods To Evaluate Natural Antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 4901-4908.

8. Grün, I.U., Ahn, J., Clarke, A.D., Lorenzen, C.L. (2006) Reducing Oxidation of Meat. Food Technology, 60.

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Created by WikiSysop on 29 January 2011, at 02:34