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Reduction of bread staling using hydrocolloids


Key words bread, quality, staling, hydrocolloid, biological, polymer
Latest version 2010/12/20
Completed by SP

How does it work?

Primary objective To reduce or delay the phenomenon bread staling by using hydrocolloids.
Working principle By adding hydrocolloids to a dough mix when preparing bread the phenomenon known as bread staling will be reduced or postponed. Staling is the phenomena where baked bread becomes tougher in its crumb and its crust gets softer during storage. Hydrocolloids are a collection-name for a number of polysaccharides (carbohydrates) and proteins that are used in several industrial sectors. Hydrocolloids are capable of controlling the rheology and texture of aqueous systems. Examples of hydrocolloids that show an anti-staling effect on bread are xanthan, guar gum, alginate and HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose).
Additional effects Hydrocolloids have shown, beyond the anti-staling effect, to also increase the overall quality of bread, such as better water holding capacity and increased loaf volume. It should be stated however that hydrocolloids interact with water and often create a gel quickly. If pure hydrocolloid powder is added directly to water there is a large chance of formations of hydrocolloid lumps that are enclosed in a gel structure coating around it. To prevent this, the hydrocolloid should be mixed with the other dry products before mixing it with water.
Important process parameters pH, temperature, baking time.
Important product parameters Concentration of hydrocolloid, type of hydrocolloid, type of ingredients in the bread.

What can it be used for?

Products Hydrocolloids can be used in a large variety of foodstuffs outside the bread industry. They are primarily used as a stabiliser in a wide variety of food products such as ready sauce, chocolate pudding, yoghurt and many more.
Operations Baking.
Solutions for short comings This technology can prevent the phenomenon bread staling.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Not known.
Operations Hydrocolloids cannot be used for processes including water.
Other limitations Not known.
Risks or hazards Not known.


Maturity Hydrocolloids are used in the food industry today, but within the baking industry it is still only available on lab scale.
Modularity /Implementation This technology can be implemented into an existing product line. However it should be stated that hydrocolloids changes the rheology of the dough and changes might be needed “downstream” in the product line to compensate.
Consumer aspects Since most hydrocolloids are of natural origin the acceptance is probably higher than for an additive with a non-natural origin. It probably will get the same reception as an additive.
Legal aspects There are a number of hydrocolloids that are approved in EU as additives.
Environmental aspects None known at the moment.

Further Information

Institutes SP
References 1. Gray J.H. and Bemiller J.N. (2003) Bread Staling: Molecular Basis and Control. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2, pp. 1-21.

2. Dziezak J.D. (1991) A focus on gums. Food Technology, 45, pp. 115-132.

3. Christianson D.D., Hodge J.E., Osborne D., and Detroy R.W. (1981) Gelatinization of Wheat Starch as Modified by Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum, and Cellulose Gum. Cereal Chemistry, 58, pp. 513-517.

4. Rojas J.A., Rosell C.M. and Benedito de Barber C. (1999) Pasting properties of different wheat flour-hydrocolloid systems. Food Hydrocolloids, 13, pp. 27-33.

5. Rossel C.M., Rojas J.A., Benedito de Barber C. (2001) Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology ad bread quality. Food Hydrocolloids, 15, pp. 75-81.

6. Guarda A., Rosell C.M., Benedito C., Galotto M. J. (2004) Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents. Food Hydrocolloids, 18, pp. 241-247.

7. EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND COUNCIL DIRECTIVE No 95/2/EC of 20 February 1995 on food additives other than colours and sweeteners

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Created by WikiSysop on 29 January 2011, at 01:34