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Batch overpressure water cascading or spray retort
Additional effects The enhanced heat penetration due to produ The enhanced heat penetration due to product agitation permits the use of higher processing temperatures and consequently shorter process times, which on its turn results in improved product quality. On the other hand, in agitational processes, products must be secured within the baskets while allowing the free passage of the heating medium. For this, special spacers and container retaining systems are to be used. ontainer retaining systems are to be used.
Author WikiSysop  +
Completed by KU Leuven LFT +
Consumer aspects No information available. No problems expected.
Environmental aspects No information available
Important process parameters Temperature, time, rotational/agitational speed +
Important product parameters Thermal diffusivity, geometry and dimensions, viscosity, head space +
Innovation source Not applicable +
Institutes Campden BRI + , CTCPA + , KU Leuven LFT +
Key words and relations pasteurisation  + , sterilisation  + , thermal processing  + , batch retort  + , water cascading  + , water spray  + , packed foods and beverages  + , overpressure  +
Latest version 14 December 2010  +
Legal aspects No information available, but no regulatory hurdles are anticipated.
Match with potential needs/short comings Poor [[Heat penetration studies for in-pack thermal processing in batch retort systems|heat penetration]] rate in conventional batch type autoclaves.
Maturity Available at lab-scale and industrial scale
Modularity A batch-type overpressure water cascading/spray retort can easily be inserted in an existing production line
Operation Stabilizing +
Operations Thermal pasteurisation or sterilisation of packaged products
Other limitations damage to sensitive products like soft fruit particles that consumer like to see compact
Primary objective of technology or innovative tool An overpressure water cascading/spray retort can be used for thermal pasteurisation or sterilisation of packed foods.
Principle Physical +
Product Food industry: packaged foods and beverages Pharmaceutical industry: packaged products that need to be decontaminated
References Holdsworth, S.D. (1997). Thermal processing of packaged foods. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, pp. 283.
Restricted operations No information available
Restricted products Not suited for non-packed products For solid products, product rotation/agitation is not beneficial
Review document Template:Review document +
Review status Template:Review status +
Risks or hazards No risks/hazards
Subtask 2.2.2 +
Technology class Heaters  +
Title Batch-type overpressure water cascading/spray retort for in-pack thermal processing  +
Working principle A water cascading/spray retort is one of A water cascading/spray retort is one of the different types of retorts that are designed to provide overpressure (i.e. the pressure supplied to a retort in excess of that exerted by the heating medium at a given process temperature) during processing which is often required to maintain the package integrity. As temperature and pressure are controlled independently, they are especially suited for packages with limited resistance to internal pressure (such as semi-rigid plastic containers, flexible pouches or trays, glass jars etc…) The heating medium is pressurised hot water, which is cascading over a perforated top plate or sprayed by several spray bars respectively in a water cascading or a water spray retort. Cooling is achieved by cascading/spraying cold water. A water cascading/spray retort can be operated in a static or in an agitated mode. Product agitation can be realized by end-over-end rotation or by a pendular movement of the baskets holding the packaged foods (hence, not all containers undergo exactly the same degree of agitation), for example in a Steriflow retort. Agitation can also be realized through a horizontal movement of the baskets. A reciprocating actuator shakes the baskets and their contents back and forth during processing (up to 150 shakes/min in the Shaka (c) retort). The vigorous agitation causes thorough mixing of the food in the container and hence, enhances the heat penetration in the food product. In this case, all containers undergo exactly the same degree of agitation. ergo exactly the same degree of agitation.
Creation dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 28 February 2012 12:10:39  +
Categories Technology Sheet  +
Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 17 May 2015 20:14:31  +
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