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Supercritical extraction of flavour compounds in spice.

Identification

Key words supercritical extraction, spice, flavour, extraction, fragrance, re-aromatizing
Latest version 2010/12/21
Completed by FRIP

How does it work?

Primary objective This technology can avoid oxidation and evaporation of volatile flavour and fragrance compounds of spice during processing like drying. Fractional separation of selected components yields improved quality, higher volumes, reduced extraction times, elimination of undesirable contaminants.
Working principle Fresh herbs are ground and then extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. The obtained essential oil is used for re-aromatizing of the dry bulk material.

The supercritical fluid is a state of matter above its critical temperature and critical pressure (critical point). This supercritical fluid has specific properties which allow extract sensitive compounds. For carbon dioxide the critical point is 31.7 °C and 7.39 MPa [1,2,3,4,5].

Images
Additional effects Different compounds are extracted with different efficiency and rate. It depends on properties of the compounds (molecular weight, volatility, solubility) and on the treatment conditions (temperature, pressure).
Important process parameters High pressure (over 7.39 MPa) to gain supercritical conditions. Temperature higher than 31.7°C. The optimal technological parameters and the extraction duration depend on the compound extracted. The severe conditions and longer treatment time the more compound and higher yield.
Important product parameters If CO2 densities over about 0.5 g/cm3 are used, also fatty acids and their methyl esters, triglycerides, colouring matters, etc, can be extracted. If extraction conditions higher than about 0.6 g/cm3 CO2 densities produce low extraction selectivity; i.e., the coextraction of higher molecular weight compounds.

What can it be used for?

Products Spice or extract (e.g. oleoresin and fractionating the oleoresin into fixed and essential oil components).

Essential oils.

Other products containing volatile compounds which should be preserved.

Operations This technology can be used to produce dried spice with lower loss of quality and quantity of flavour compounds than with conventional methods or concentrates of them.
Solutions for short comings This technology resolves the problem of oxidation and evaporation of volatile compounds and microbial problems connected with use of dried herbs and spices used as food additive.

Using supercritical extraction eliminates the microbiological risk. The cells and spores are not extracted and the bulk material can be pasteurized / sterilized.

What can it NOT be used for?

Products Dry powders
Operations None
Other limitations High costs for apparatus.
Risks or hazards High pressure.

Implementation

Maturity Need of high pressure equipment. No scale-up problems expected. Technology is currently in industrial scale use.
Modularity /Implementation This technology can be inserted in spice producing technology line before drying step.

Commercial advantage: oils obtained are constituted mainly of oxygenated hydrocarbons and had a low content of monoterpenes that could mask the natural flavor of the essential oil.

Consumer aspects Not available. No problems expected.
Legal aspects Not available. No problems expected.
Environmental aspects This technology is relatively environmentally friendly because CO2 used is extracted from the air.

Further Information

Institutes Wageningen UR - FBR, University of Bucharest, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Companies TRUMF, Flavex, SKW
References [1] Mukhopadhyay, M. Natural extracts using supercritical carbon dioxide, CRC Press LLC, 2000, ISBN: 0-8493-0819-4.

[2] Hamdan, S.; et al. Extraction of cardamom oil by supercritical carbon dioxide and sub-critical propane. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2008, (44), 25-30.

[3] Gnayfeed, M. H.; et al. Supercritical CO2 and Subcritical Propane Extraction of Pungent Paprika and Quantification of Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Capsaicinoids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, (49), 2761-2766.

[4] Kerrola, K.; Kallio, H. Volatile Compounds and Odor Characteristics of Carbon Dioxide.

[5] Extracts of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem 1993, (41), 785-790.

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Created by Hamoen on 17 January 2012, at 11:42