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Total Food Quality Model

Why to deal with this? The user-oriented innovativeness of the food chains is more important than ever for various reasons (increasing consumer demand and intangible attributes of foods, increasing public inertest regarding sustainable development and ethical aspects).

The Total Food Quality Model (TFQ Model) was developed by Grunert to integrate various approaches into one conceptual framework specifically for analysing quality perception of food.

The Total Food Quality Model.jpg

Fig.1. The Total Food Quality Model (Bronso, Fjord and Grunert, 2002)

The TFQ Model analyses the consumers’ quality perception along two major dimensions: horizontal and vertical dimension. The horizontal dimension is the time dimension: it distinguishes quality perception before and after purchase. The vertical dimension deals with inference-making. What motivates consumers to buy one food product rather than another? Before the purchase consumers can form their quality expectations based on several extrinsic and intrinsic (sensory) quality cues (signals). Quality cues are connecting to the consumers’ knowledge, expertises and beliefs about good quality. Extrinsic quality cues such as brand, product origin, quality labels etc. refer to the intangible credence attributes of the products (e.g. food safety, origin, production method), which can not be observed and checked by the consumers directly. Intrinsic cues refer to physical properties of the product. For example consumers use the colour and fat content of meat as an indicator of taste and tenderness. The expected quality has four major quality aspects: sensory, health, convenience and process characteristics.

Experience can be evaluated after the purchase, the expectations based on quality cues can be confirmed or contradicted after the trial. Confirmation and disconfirmation of expectations is the major determinant of consumer satisfaction and of consumer intent regarding future purchases.

Use of this theory (TFQ Model) in practice (Fig. 2): A new product development model was developed by Søndergaard, which takes an understanding of consumer quality perception as its point of departure.

Product development based on quality positioning.jpg

Fig. 2. Product development based on quality positioning (based on Søndergaard, 2003).

The first step of the development is a positioning of the product in terms of certain qualities which are desired by consumers. So motivation of purchase can be guaranteed. The positioning of product has to be translated into a physical product in the product development process. In addition to these intrinsic cues have to be complemented with appropriate extrinsic cues. The intrinsic and extrinsic cues result in the perception of quality before/during the purchase and during preparation/consumption corresponds with the planned positioning.

When is it suitable/applicable? The TFQ Model may be used in any product developing situation in order to take into consideration by the innovation projects to fulfil the consumer demands.
When is it NOT suitable/applicable? When the aim of development is solely the cost reduction or the increasing of the production efficiency, what not results changes in product quality, or when the credence qualities of the products are not essential.
What costs are related to it (financial, time effort etc.)? The TFQ Model is a conceptual framework, that can be used for ’kick off’ strategy formulation, or in a more sophisticated way as a serious strategy tool. Based on this model primer consumer survey can be carried to construct the development.

What’s the relevant HTE output? A consumer issues guideline was developed by High Tech Europe project. Download here
Whom can I talk to from the HTE team? KÉKI and TTZ are able to support you by use of the TFQM model or to direct you to a competent organization.

Relevant internet links"•" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
Online databases and tools n.a.
Where to get advice, consultancy? Support: Total Food Quality Model is a well applicable framework that is easy to apply by market research firms. Based on research activities the Aarhus School of Business, MAPP (Denmark) has the biggest experiences in this area.
Related innovation sheets Consumer acceptance of novel technologies, Consumer attitudes, Consumer issues x pre feasibility, Consumer issues x feasibility, Management x development

Title Total Food Quality Model
Aspect Consumer
Latest Version 14.6.2013
Completed by NAIK EKI

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Created by Hte keki on 23 October 2013, at 23:26